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Empowering Women in Sports

Introduction | Women Still on the Sidelines | Barriers to Women in Athletic Careers | Women in the Olympics | Women Athletes in the Media | Athletics in the Lives of Women and Girls | Contact Sports and Violence Against Women | Sports for All | A "Partnership" Model of Sports | Exploding the Myths | Strategies for Change | Endnotes | List of Resources | What is Title IX? | If you have a Title IX Complaint...

Endnotes

1 Gender-neutral topics were covered 1% of the time. Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles, Gender Stereotyping in Televised Sports: A Follow-up to the 1989 Study (July 1994), 2.

2 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Final Report of the NCAA Gender-Equity Task Force, 1992, 1.

3 NCAA, The Sports and Recreation Programs of the Nation's Universities and Colleges, Reports #3-7; and NCAA Participation Studies, 1987-93.

4 NCAA, The Sports and Recreation Programs; and the NCAA Participation Studies.

5 NCAA, Final Report of Gender Equity Task Force, 1992.

6 National Federation of State High School Associations, 1993 Sports Participation Survey (Kansas City, MO)

7 Calculated using a rate of growth of .33%/year.

8 National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Dept. of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement, America's High School Sophomores: A Ten Year Comparison (June 1993) 32.

9 Data from National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.

10 National Federation of State High School Associations, 1993 Sports Participation Survey.

11 Vivian Acosta and Linda Jean Carpenter, Women in Intercollegiate Sport (Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn College, 1994), 6.

12 Mary C. Lydon, "Secondary School Programs: Diversity in Practice," in Women in Sport: Issues and Controversies, ed. Greta Cohen (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1993), 100-101.

13 Acosta and Carpenter, Women in Intercollegiate Sport, 1.

14 Lydon, "Secondary School Programs," 99.

15 NCAA, NCAA Study on Women in Intercollegiate Athletics: Perceived Barriers of Women in Intercollegiate Athletics Careers (Overland Park, KS, 1988-89), 9.

16 NCAA, "Table 4," NCM Gender Equity Study Summary of Results (March 1992).

17 NCAA, NCAA Study on Women in Intercollegiate Athletics, 5 7, and 10.

18 Ann Killion, "Fighting the Whispers," in A Kind of Grace: A Treasury of Sportswriting by Women, ed. Ron Rapaport (Berkeley, CA: Zenobia Press, 1994), 92.

19 Mariah Burton Nelson, Are We Winning Yet? How Women are Changing Sports and Sports are Changing Women (New York: Random House, 1991),145.

20 Nelson, Are We Winning Yet?, 144.

21 Diane Keaton, "Out of the Closet," in Women's Sports and Fitness (September 1992), 62.

22 Nelson, Are We Winning Yet?,142.

23 Nelson, Are We Winning Yet?, 138.

24 Nelson, Are We Winning Yet?, 149.

25 United States Olympic Committee, "1994 Fact Book" (Colorado Springs, CO, 1994).

26 United States Olympic Committee, "Grants to Women 1991-92."

27 Amateur Athletics Foundation of Los Angeles, "1992 Olympic Games Program" and "1994 Olympic Winter Games Program"; and Bert Roughton, "Next Hurdle at Games Must be Women's Rights," Atlanta Journal and Constitution,14 January 1995, B8.

28 United States Olympic Committee, "1994 Fact Book."

29 Marlise Simons, "Muslim Women's Exclusion is Target of New Campaign," New York Times, 13 January 1995, B 15; Melissa Turner, "IOC to Ignore Complaint about Barring Women," Atlanta Journal and Constitution, 25 January 1995,A8.

30 Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles, Gender Stereotyping in Televised Sports: A Follow-up to the 1989 Study (July 1994), 2.

31 The Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles, Coverage of Women's Sports in Four Daily Newspapers, 1991, 3.

32 Lisa Rubarth, "Twenty Years After Title IX: Women in Sports Media," in Journal of Physical Education, Recre-ation, and Dance, March 1992, 53-54.

33 Kristin Huckshorn, "Female Sportswriter Finally Rocks the Boat," in A Kind of Grace, 34-36.

34 Mary Garber, "Women and Children are Not Admitted to the Press Box," in A Kind of Grace, 382.

35 Miller Lite Report on Sports and Fitness in the Lives of Working Women, in cooperation with Women's Sports Foundation, East Meadow, NJ and Working Woman Magazine, New York, NY (March 8, 1993),5. The study was based on a random survey of 1,577 white-collar working women.

36 Joyce Gelb and Maria Leaf Palley, "Title IX: The Politics of Sex Discrimination," in Women and Public Policies, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987), 119.

37 Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools, 112 S. Ct. 1028 (1992); and Linda Jean Carpenter, "Letters from Home: My Life with Title IX," in Women in Sport: Issues and Controversies, 91.

38 Christine Grant and Mary Curtis, Judicial Action Regarding Gender Equity, (Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa Athletics Department, October 3, 1994). 39 Grant and Curtis,Judicial Action, 29-31.

40 Leslie Bernstein et al., "Physical Exercise and Re-duced Risk of Breast Cancer in Young Women," Journal of the National Cancer lnstitute, 86:18, (21 September 1994), 1403-1408.

41 Rose Frisch et al., "Former Athletes Have a Lower Lifetime Occurrence of Breast Cancer and Cancers of the Reproductive System," in Exercise, Calories, Fat, and Cancer, ed. M.M. Jacobs (Plenum Press, New York, 1992).

42 The Women's Sports Foundation, Minorities in Sports: The Effect of Varsity Sports Participation on the Social, Educational, and Career Mobility of Minority Students (New York, NY, August 15, 1989) 23, Table 2. 43 Women's Sports Foundation, "Table 4," Minorities in Sports, 24.

44 Women's Sports Foundation, "Table 6," Minorities in Sports, 25.

45 Women's Sports Foundation, "Table 4," Minorities in Sports, 24.

46 Women's Sports Foundation, "Table 6," Minorities in Sports, 25.

47 Women's Sports Foundation, "Table 8," Minorities in Sports, 27.

48 Women's Sports Foundation, "Table 9," Minorities in Sports, 28.

49 Women's Sports Foundation, "Table 13," Minorities in Sports, 32.

50 The Wilson Report: Moms, Dads, Daughters, and Sports, presented by Wilson Sporting Goods Co. in cooperation with The Women's Sports Foundation, New York, NY (June 7, 1988), 22.

51 Women's Sports Foundation, Minorities in Sports, 27.

52 Women's Sports Foundation, Minorities in Sports, 19.

53 Lynn Jaffee and Rebecca Manzer, "Girls' Perspectives: Physical Activity and Self Esteem," Melpomene Journal (Fall 1992); and Lynn Jaffee and Sherri Ricker, "Physical Activity and Self-Esteem in Girls: The Teen Years," Melpomene Journal (Fall 1993). Data based on focus groups with girls in St. Paul, MN.

54 Mariah Burton Nelson, The Stronger Women Get, the More Men Love Football (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1994). See Chapter 5.

55 Todd W. Crosset, Jeffrey R. Benedict, and Mark A. McDonald, "Male Student-Athletes Reported for Sexual Assault: A Survey of Campus Police Departments and Judicial Affairs Offices," forthcoming in Journal of Sport and Social Issues (May 1995).

56 Mary P. Koss and John A. Gaines, "The Prediction of Sexual Aggression by Alcohol Use, Athletic Participation, and Fraternity Affiliation," Journal of Interpersonal Violence 8:1 (March 1993), Sage Publications, 94-108.

57 Bill Brubaker, "Violence in Football Extends Off Field," The Washington Post, 13 November 1994, Al.

58 Nelson, Are We Winning Yet?, 7.

59 Mary Duquin, "One Future for Sport: Moving Toward an Ethic of Care," in Women in Sport: Issues and Contro-versies, 290.

60 Nelson, Are We Winning Yet?, 9.

61 Nelson, Are We Winning Yet?, 189.

62 Vivian Acosta and Linda Jean Carpenter, "Back to the Future: Reform with a Woman's Voice," Academe (January/February 1991), 25.

63 NCAA, "Tables 4.8 and 4.9,"Revenues and Expenses of Intercollegiate Athletics, 1985-1989 (Overland Park, KS).

64 Katherine Barrett and Richard Greene, " 'No One Runs This Place,"' in Financial World (15 March l994).

65 Mike Zapler, ""Protecting Men's Sports: U.S. Officials to consider complaints that male teams' existence is threatened," in Chronicle of Higher Education (6 January 1995), A4, Washington, DC.

66 Nelson, The Stronger Women Get, 53-54.

67 Nelson, The Stronger Women Get, 55-56.

68 NCAA, Gender Equity Study Summary of Results, Table 2.

69 Cynthia Costello and Anne J. Stone, eds., The Amen- can Woman 1994-95, (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1994), Figure 3-13, 302.

70 Costello and Stone, The American Woman, Figure 3-1, 283.

71 Linda Jean Carpenter and Vivian Acosta, Job Statis: Reflections of Immobility and Resistance to Job Change Among Senior Women Athletic Personnel (Brooklyn, NY Brooklyn College, 1992).:

72 Betty Hicks, "The Legendary Babe Didrikson Zaharias," in Women in Sport: Issues and Controversies, 38.

73 Hicks, "The Legendary Babe Didrikson," 38-48.

74 Janet Woolum, Outstanding Women Athletes (Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press 1992), 171.

75 Woolum, 171.

76 "Billie Jean King," Women's Sports and Fitness (October 1984), 42.

77 "Billie Jean King," 42.

78 Woolum, 142-143.

79 Woolum, 173.

80 Aldore Collier, "Olympic Power," Ebony (July 1992),79.

81 Fax from Martina Navratilova's publicist.

82 Steve Wilstein, "Navratilova Bids Goodbye to Wimbledon," Associated Press, (19 June 1994, BC Cycle).

83 "At the Loft, Championing Gay Games," New York Times, 21 February l993, Section 13WC, 13.

84 Dirk Johnson, "Gay-Rights Vote Challenged," New York Times, 15 November 1992, Section 1, 20.

85 Chance Conner, "Colorado Takes Heat for Antigay Law," Newsday, 27 December 1992, 21.

This Empowering Women in Sports report is a publication of the Feminist Majority Foundation's Task Force on Women and Girls in Sports.

More on Women and Girls in Sports

(Empowering Women in Sports, The Empowering Women Series, No. 4; A Publication of the Feminist Majority Foundation, 1995)