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President Ashraf Ghani and CEO Abdullah Abdullah of Afghanistan held their promise to appoint four women in the new cabinet, and the nation's lower house of Parliament approved them along with the rest of the 16 cabinet nominees introduced by the Afghan government on Saturday.
Abdul Rauf Ibrahimi, speaker for the lower house of parliament, confirmed on Saturday that there are four women among that the 25 member Cabinet of President Ashraf Ghani. This approval comes as a relief to Afghan women, who previously protested the lack of representation of women in the country's parliament.
The newly appointed female ministers include minister of women's affairs Dilbar Nazari, minister of counter-narcotics Salamat Azimi, minister of higher education Farida Momand, and minister of labor, social affairs, martyrs and the disabled, Nasrin Oryakhail.
Nominees for these positions of leadership for various ministries presented their policy agendas to lawmakers in Parliament on Wednesday before final votes took place on Saturday. During her presentation, Nazari vowed that she would work to further women's rights and opportunities in Afghanistan.
"I commit that I will not hesitate from any efforts in order to increase the capacities of women," she said.
All four women are highly accomplished and well suited for their positions as ministers. Nazari has been a member of parliament and worked with the United Nations. Azimi has been a University Chancellor and professor, and Momand is a doctor and has worked in several government hospitals. Oryakhail, too, is a doctor, and has been a medical instructor at the Kabul Medical University.
Niloofar Rahmani, the first woman to serve in the Afghan military since the fall of the Taliban, was honored by the US State Department with the International Women of Courage Award last month.
Rahmani was one of ten women recognized by the State Department for this prestigious award. Among them were women's rights leader and peace building advocate Majd Chourbaji of Syria, and May Sabe Phyu, who is leading gender equality efforts in Burma.
Capt. Rahmani was only 18 when she heard that the Afghan Air Force was recruiting female pilots. "I wanted to fly with my brothers, shoulder to shoulder," she said. After completing six months of intensive English courses to prepare her for undergraduate pilot training, Rahmani earned her wings in July 2012, just two years after hearing about the Air Force's recruitment of female pilots. She soon after became the first female pilot to serve in Afghanistan's military since 2001 and the fall of the Taliban.
Rahmani's father was a strong supporter of his daughter, but he also warned her about the possible dangers and difficulties ahead of her. "Go for it, but you must be strong," Rahmani remembers him saying. Despite repeated threats from the Taliban and some conservatives to kill Rahmani as well as her parents and siblings, 23-year-old Rahmani refused to quit. "If you don't fight for your rights, they will never give them to you," she said during her visit to the US.
While visiting the United States to receive the award, Rahmani met with from First Lady Michelle Obama, the Navy's Blue Angels, and the CEO of Girls Scouts San Diego. Rahmani then traveled to Miramar to meet fellow commanders and female pilots. Finally, she participated in the 59th United Nations Commission on the Status of Women.
"We need females to be a doctor, to be in each part of society. And we need female pilots too," Rahmani said. "I have the support of people all over the world. They know what I am fighting for. [The award] is for all the females in my community."
The United States ranks 16th in the recently released 2015 Social Progress Index, which assesses and scores countries worldwide across three categories: Basic Human Needs, Foundations of Wellbeing, and Opportunity. The US was 21st, 35th, and 8th in these smaller categories, respectively.
The US also ranks 55th in maternal mortality, 32nd in early marriage, defined as the percentage of women who are married between the ages of 15 and 19; 14th in satisfied demand for contraception, with 85% of women able to access contraception if they wish; and 15th in acceptance for the queer community.
The SPI was created in response to the use of GDP as the main measure to judge a country's success. Michael Green, co-author of Philanthrocapitalism and SPI executive director, is adamant that GDP "shouldn't be a guide to all decision-making." (The economist who invented the concept of GDP has himself written that a nation's welfare can "scarcely be inferred" by using it as an indicator.
"GDP tells us quite a lot about a country's progress," Steve Almond, one of the authors of the SPI, said, "but it's definitely not the whole story."
The SPI was first brainstormed at the World Economic Forum's Global Agenda Council on Philanthropy and Social Investing. The Index's methodology was created by Professor Michael Porter of Harvard Business School with help from from The Economist's New York Bureau Chief Matthew Bishop, Hernando de Soto of the Institute for Liberty and Democracy, Judith Rodin of the Rockefeller Foundation, and Scott Stern of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The index also includes an interactive map of the world to easily compare each country on these issues and a definition page for each term.
Iranian women will now be allowed to attend major sporting events, Iran officials announced on Saturday.
Although the new policy still holds barriers for women attending specific sports - those considered to be more "masculine" such as wrestling or swimming - this announcement reverses an antiquated rule that forbid women to watch matches attended by men.
Abdolhamid Ahmadi, the deputy minister for sports, told the state news agency on Saturday that the country's national Security Council had approved a government proposal to allow women to watch games this year. It is still not clear which sports women can watch, but they are likely to include basketball and volleyball. In these stadiums, women will have special assigned seating, with mixed seating available for families.
This issue gained international attention last summer when a young British-Iranian woman was jailed for attempting to watch a men's volleyball match. 25-year-old Ghocheh Ghavami was convicted and sentenced to a year in jail and a two-year travel ban, before she was released on bail after five months in prison. Last week, an appeals court dismissed the charges against Ghavami.
Ghavami and other activists are hopeful for what this change could mean for women in Iran. 38-year-old women's rights activist Najiyeh Allahdad celebrated this small victory. "We have done all we could to get our rights back. This should have happened some time ago. It is now clear for me that this government is really trying hard to improve our lives."
The Human Rights Commission (HRC) in Northern Ireland won its call for a judicial review on the region's restrictive abortion law.
The High Court in Belfast ruled that the HRC could seek a review of current law. Abortion in Northern Ireland is currently illegal in all cases except when a pregnant person's life is at risk or when there is the risk of permanent or serious damage to the pregnant person's mental or physical health.
The HRC is asking for a change in the law to allow for abortions in the case of incest, rape, or "serious malformation" of the fetus. "Given the vulnerability of women and girls in these situations," the HRC said, "the commission considers it appropriate to use its powers and bring this legal challenge in its own name."
Northern Ireland's abortion law differs from the rest of the United Kingdom due to the fact that the 1967 Abortion Act was never extended to Northern Ireland. An attempt to extend the 1967 Abortion Act to Northern Ireland was shut down in 2000 when the majority of the Northern Ireland Assembly voted against it.
Women's rights activists who protested Saudia Arabia's driving ban in November remain imprisoned.
Loujain al-Hathloul, 25, and Maysa al-Alamoudi, 33, were arrested while they were crossing into Saudi Arabia on November 30. Both women were using driver's licenses from the United Arab Emirates and aimed to raise awareness on Saudi Arabia's ongoing ban on female drivers. Al-Hathloul, a UAE-based Saudi journalist and Al-Alamoudi have been held in a Saudi prison for nearly one month and they have been referred to a court on terrorism charges. While driving towards the Saudi border, Al-Hathloul filmed herself and explained that "she is trying to keep up pressure on Saudi authorities to allow women to drive."
Saudi activists who spoke to BuzzFeed News by phone said that it was the women's social media activity that led to their arrest. "The officials were waiting for them," one said, "to arrest them. They had their activity on Twitter all logged, they said the women had been agitating against the [Saudi] kingdom." Human Rights Watch has called on Saudi authorities to release the women.
Women's rights activists in Saudi Arabia and Iran were freed last week. Both women were arrested in October and served around 90 days in prison for their non-violent crimes.
Iranian activist Mahdieh Golroo, who was arrested for attending a gathering in Tehran in protest of acid attacks on several women in Isfahan, was released Tuesday on a bail of about $200,000 USD. Golroo's confiscated personal items such as a laptop computer and her cell phone were searched by the security forces when they went to her home after her arrest. She spent 45 days in solitary confinement in Tehran's notorious Evin prison, known for its detainment and torture of political prisoners. During her time in present, her family could meet with her only in the presence of intelligence agents.
"While it is a welcome development that Mahdieh Golrou is currently out on bail," Gissou Nia, Deputy Director of the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran, told Global Voices, "her legal process is far from over and her prosecution is part of a broader plan perpetrated by Iranian officials to silence women's voices."
Five days after Golroo's release, Suad al-Shammari, co-founder of the Saudi Liberal Network, was released from prison in Saudi Arabia. She was arrested for "insulting Islam" by speaking critically about the nation's clerics and the kingdom's religious police, who enforce brutal Sharia law. Shammari's daughter, Sarah al-Rimaly, has said that her mother is "recovering" from "a lack of nutrients" because she depends on a special diet.
Although Saudi Arabia's new King Salman is granting certain prisoners amnesty, Rimaly claims her mother's release was unrelated to his decision.
An Egyptian appeals court convicted and sentenced a doctor today for performing female genital mutilation (FGM) that lead to a 13-year-old girl's death. This is the first time a doctor has been convicted in Egypt of this crime.
Although Egypt criminalized FGM in 2008, it remains widespread in the region. Egypt has one of the highest rates of FGM in the world.
"I am really happy," said lawyer Reda el-Danbouki in an interview with The Associated Press. "Here is a judge that understands." el-Danbouki also called the verdict "a triumph for women."
FGM is widely regarded as a human rights violation. The procedure, which involves the partial or total removal of external genitalia, is designed to decrease women's sexual desire and is seen in many cultures as essential for a women's suitability for marriage. The practice is known to increase the risk of HIV transmission as well as infant and maternal mortality rates.
A 2013 report by UNICEF showed FGM in decline worldwide but estimated 30 million women and girls still are at risk. The report covered data from over 20 years in 29 countries across Africa and the Middle East where the practice is still prevalent, including Somalia, Guinea, Djbouti, and Egypt - where nine out of ten girls still are subjected to FGM. According to the report, about 125 million women in the world have undergone FGM.
FGM was made illegal in the US as recently as 1996. Renewed efforts to curb FGM in the US came to fruition last summer, when the Obama administration set up a preliminary working group for FGM prevention and action. Its first step is to examine the extent of FGM in the US and explore ways to eliminate the practice.
Russia has banned transgender people as well as "those who suffer from disorders of sexual preference" from obtaining driver's licenses.
The new regulations put trans folks and anyone suffering from "fetishism, exhibitionism, and voyeurism" among those with primarily physical impairments such as blindness who are barred from driving. The Russian government claims it is tightening medical controls for drivers because Russia has too many road accidents.
"Banning people from driving based on their gender identity or expression is ridiculous and just another example of the Russian regime's methodical rollback of basic human rights for its citizens," said Shawn Gaylord of Human Rights First in a press release. The regulations have been criticized by the Russian Psychiatric Association and the Association of Russian Lawyers, who rightfully labeled it discriminatory. The ARL is seeking support from human rights organizations in pushing the Russian Constitutional Court to clarify the regulations.
The driving ban is just the latest in Russia's strategy to criminalize and stigmatize its LGBT citizens. In 2013, Russia banned "homosexual propaganda," a move which furthered the anti-gay climate in the nation and effectively condoned widespread terror against gay and trans residents. The law has been criticized by President Obama and European leaders like Angela Merkel, and came under fire during the 2014 Olympic Games in Sochi - where athletes and activists spoke out against discrimination and out athletes fought to compete. Some also worry that the anti-gay sentiments held by Russia will spread to other Eastern European countries.
1/5/2015 - Transgender Woman Elected Mayor in India
Raigarh, a city of 300,000 in the state of Chhattisgarh, India has become the first city in India to elect a transgender mayor.
On Sunday, independent candidate Madhu Kinnar was elected mayor over Mahaveer Guruji of the popular Bharatiya Janata Party by more than 4,500 votes.
Nine months before, the Indian Supreme Court declared transgender people, known as hijras, as a legal third gender in a landmark ruling that legally recognized the identities of an estimated two million people in the nation. Since the ruling, all legal documents include a third category for transgender people, and the government has been required to construct separate public bathrooms and special hospital wards.
Kinnar, who comes from the low caste community Dalit, used to earn her money singing and dancing in trains. She says she was overwhelmed by the support she received from the public.
"I consider this win as love and blessings of people for me. I'll put in my best efforts to accomplish their dreams," Kinnar said.
United Nations Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women Rashida Manjoo returned last week from a nine-day official visit in Afghanistan with a call to the Afghan Government and the international community to continue its focus on creating sustainable solutions to reduce violence against women.
This was Manjoo's third visit to Afghanistan, and the Special Rapporteur noted many positive developments since her travel to the country in 1999, during the Taliban regime, and in 2005.
In particular, Manjoo cited the creation of the Elimination of Violence Against Women Law (EVAW) by presidential decree in 2009 as "a key step towards the elimination of violence against women and girls."EVAW criminalizes 22 acts of violence against women - including rape, child and forced marriage, domestic violence, trafficking, and forced self-immolation - and specifies punishment for perpetrators. Although enforcement of EVAW has remained a challenge, the law was recently used last month to convict and sentence a local mullah to 20-years imprisonment for the rape of a 10-year old girl in Kunduz.
Despite this success, Manjoo noted with concern that many women and girls continue to lack access to the formal justice system. Her investigation also found problems with corruption within the justice system as well as distrust concerning the ability of the courts to appropriately adjudicate matters related to women's rights. These factors combine with societal pressure to push women and girls outside of the formal justice system to resolve disputes.
Afghan women and girls are reluctant to report crimes of violence. Manjoo reported several reasons, including "lack of knowledge of the law and its protective remedial provisions; fear of reprisal from the perpetrators and family members; financial and other constraints, including the lack of freedom of movement; and fear of being treated as criminals instead of victims, when reporting crimes committed against them."
Afghanistan, however, has several opportunities to address barriers to eliminating violence against women. A comprehensive review of the Penal Code is expected to be carried out over the next year. According to Manjoo, this review will include gender-based violence crimes, including sexual harassment. In addition, Afghanistan is expected to draft a new, comprehensive family code.
Manjoo found that the legislative and institutional developments in Afghanistan were "a reflection of political will in addressing the promotion and protection of women's rights which is further reflected in the appointments of women in high level positions." That political will is likely to carry on, as newly elected Afghan President Ashraf Ghani has taken a public stance of support for promoting women's rights, and his wife First Lady Rula Ghani actively works on advancing women's issues.
The role of the international community in supporting efforts to end violence against women in Afghanistan is also key. In the preliminary statement of her findings, Manjoo wrote that the increase in efforts over the past decade by the international community to promote the rights of women in Afghanistan was noticeable during her most recent visit, and she called on the international community to stand with Afghanistan to continue this work.
"It is crucial to recognize that violence against women and girls is a human rights violation that is rooted in multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination and inequalities, and that it is strongly linked to the social, cultural and economic situation of women," wrote Manjoo. "The importance of accountability as the norm for acts of violence against women cannot be over-emphasized, more especially within a context of generalized impunity for violence in public and private spheres. Accountability for all crimes committed against women and girls; the empowerment of women; and, the transformation of society, need to remain a focus for the government of Afghanistan, independent State institutions, civil society organisations and also the international community."
She continued, "It is imperative that the best interests of all women and girls in Afghanistan should guide the response of relevant stakeholders to ensure coherent and sustainable solutions, in the quest to address the individual, institutional and structural causes and consequences of violence against women and girls."
Manjoo's findings will be discussed in a comprehensive report presented at the United Nations Human Rights Council in June.
An Afghan court convicted seven men for the gang rape and robbery of four women in Paghman district near the city of Kabul.
According to reports, a group of men - some dressed in police uniforms and carrying assault rifles - stopped a group of cars traveling in Paghman last month, pulled the women from their cars, and raped them in a nearby field. The women had been traveling with their families; one was pregnant. The men also beat the women and stole their jewelry and phones. After the attack, the women were taken to a hospital by their families. The attack was reported to police after one of victims died in the hospital.
The vicious public attack received national attention and sparked outrage among Afghan women leaders. Last week, President Hamid Karzai speaking at a women's group event after meeting with a delegation of women about the attack, said "I am strongly against the death penalty and I have always been against it, but I have asked for the death penalty, and I asked the Chief Justice to issue a death sentence for these criminals."
Judge Safiullah Mujadidi conducted the trial on Sunday, which was televised nation wide in Afghanistan. During the trial, the victims appeared publicly in the courtroom to identify their attackers. Another woman, allegedly raped by the men three years ago, also identified the men as her attackers.
Hundreds of Afghan women and men rallied in the streets of Kabul chanting and holding signs saying, "My sister is your sister," "Raping women is raping the nation," and "We demand justice from the government." The Afghan Women's Network held rallies in eight cities in Afghanistan calling for "immediate justice" and showing support for the victims.
After a short trial, the court convicted all seven men on various counts related to the attack, and sentenced them to death. Human Rights Watch has expressed concern over the speed of the trial - which reportedly lasted only two hours - and possible due process violations. The men will have a chance to appeal.
The Paghman attack has brought national attention to violence against women in Afghanistan and the need for a more robust response to crimes committed against women. One activist on Sunday, told reporters, "If this act goes unpunished, the women of Afghanistan will continue to be victims. This is really a very significant moment, I would say, even maybe in the history of Karzai's government."
President Karzai issued the Elimination of Violence against Women Law (EVAW Law) in 2009 by executive decree. The law criminalizes 22 acts of violence against women and specifies punishment for perpetrators. The law, however, has had mixed results. While more crimes against women have been reported, overall there is still massive under-reporting of violence against women, according to a report released by United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) last year. In addition, the report found inadequate investigation of these crimes and continued lack of prosecution.
As of September 15, same-sex couples in Ecuador will finally be able to register their civil unions. Same-sex marriage in Ecuador is still illegal, but the status of civil union will be noted on national ID cards, and will allow certain legal and financial benefits to the couple.
Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa met with LGBT leaders days before the announcement. At the meeting, Correa received a report from the leaders that documented cases of discrimination against LGBT people in Ecuador that were a result of the lack of legal recognition for same-sex couples.
"If there was any doubt about heterosexual or same-sex civil unions being put on national ID cards, there is none any more," Correa told Telesur after the announcement, "and if someone is still turned away by a government employee, that employee will be dismissed for denying constitutional rights."
Trans-feminist activist Diane Rodriguez, who attended the meeting with Correa, told Think Progress that the new resolution is a "huge step forward." She continued, "It's like giving us full citizenship," exampling that, "in emergencies, my partner can make decisions about my health care at a hospital. Or at the bank, we can open a joint account." Rodriguez, however, noted that civil unions do not bring the full rights of marriage, pointing out that same-sex couples in Ecuador still cannot adopt children together.
Homosexuality itself was illegal in Ecuador until 1997, but since then significant progress has been made toward LGBT equality. Ecuador is currently ranked just under the US and Mexico in terms of their protection of LGBT rights on the Social Inclusion Index of 2014. Same-sex couples, however, are constitutionally banned from marrying, and President Correa has stated that he does not support same-sex marriage in Ecuador.
Over a hundred people celebrated the August 25th "Orange Day to End Violence" with a bicycle race in Bamyan, Afghanistan hosted by the nonprofit organization Shuhada.
Fifteen girls participated in the race to raise awareness about violence against women. Many others, including government and education leaders in the province, escorted them to the finish line. Prizes were given to the top three winners.
In a news item, the Shuhada Organization noted, "For more than a decade, civil society in Afghanistan, with the support of the international community, has advocated to end gender-based violence, with a particular focus on violence against women and girls. As a result, significant progress and achievements have been made to ensure equal rights for women and girls. Today, women's rights and equality between men and women are enshrined in the Afghan Constitution and the Ending Violence against Women Law (EVAW Law)."
Through the celebration of Orange Day, Shuhada, with the support of UN Women, aimed to promote awareness of and support for the EVAW Law, especially among youth, men, and faith-based leaders. The law, which was issued by the executive decree of President Hamid Karzai in 2009, criminalizes 22 acts of violence against women and specifies punishment for perpetrators.
Zahra Hussini, a member of the biking team that competed, also used the occasion to share her concern about the lack of resources for young women in sports. "I wish, one day, the girls of my country would participate at the international level without facing any kind of race, gender or ethnic discrimination," Hussini said. Hussini said even the act of riding a bicycle can be challenging for females. "We get a lot of harassment, and it is not a common thing for women to do in Afghanistan," she said.
Started by the United Nations Secretary-General's UNiTE to End Violence against Women campaign, Orange Day has been celebrated all over the world since July 2012. The focus of August 25 was ending violence against girls.
Approximately 63 percent of sexually active Cameroonian women who want to avoid pregnancy do not have access to a modern form of contraception, according to a recently released report by the Guttmacher Institute and the French Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques (IFORD).
Around 6,000 Cameroonian women die each year from complications of pregnancy and childbirth. A tragic figure, representing the reality of living in a country with one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, with 782 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. But, according to the report, "Benefits of Meeting the Contraceptive Needs of Cameroonian Women," nearly 30 percent of these women did not want to become pregnant in the first place.
Women cite several reasons for not using contraception, including the lack of adequately trained health care providers, frequent unavailability of contraceptive supplies, and limited choice of methods. As a result, they are at risk for unintended or mistimed pregnancies. The poorest women are especially at risk, with 90 percent of them at risk of an unwanted pregnancy. On average, the poorest women in Cameroon have two more children than they report wanting. These women are also the least likely to have access to quality obstetric care.
About 36 percent of unintended pregnancies in Cameroon end in abortion, but restrictions on the procedure force women to resort to clandestine, potentially lethal methods of abortion. However, according to the report, if the need for contraceptives for all women were met, there would be a 75 percent decrease in unplanned births, abortions and miscarriages. The lives of 1,300 women who die in pregnancy and childbirth would be saved each year, and there would be 13,000 fewer infant deaths annually. Additionally, each dollar spent on contraceptive services would save the Cameroon health system $1.23 on maternal and newborn care.
Globally, 529,000 women and girls die each year due to complications related to pregnancy. Millions more are left maimed or injured. In addition some 70,000 women and girls die annually from unsafe, often illegal, abortions. Although maternal deaths have dropped 45 percent since 1990, only 11 countries have reached their Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of a 75 percent reduction in maternal mortality by 2015, and several countries - including the United States - actually saw their maternal mortality rates increase over the last decade.
Increased international funding for maternal health care and family planning that is inclusive of contraception and abortion is vital to reducing maternal mortality. To fully combat maternal death, however, governments everywhere need to take an even broader approach by empowering women and girls economically and socially, confronting sexual violence and conflict, providing comprehensive health care, ending child marriage and ensuring that girls everywhere have access to basic education.
Children should begin receiving formal education about sexual health as early as age 10, according to a new study published in the journal Global Public Health.
The study's researchers note that although sexual health programs typically focus on older adolescents, sexuality and gender identity begin emerging between the ages of 10 and 14. Programs should therefore be refocused to to help ensure that this age group has the opportunity to learn about sexual health, contraception, and healthy relationships well before they begin experimenting with sexual activity.
"As younger adolescents experience rapid transitions to unfamiliar experiences and face life-changing situations such as leaving school, having sex, becoming parents or acquiring HIV, parents, teachers and concerned others have a narrow window of opportunity to facilitate their healthy transition into later adolescence and adulthood," the researchers write. "If programs, based on the healthy adolescent framework, rooted in human rights and gender equity, are implemented at a time when adolescents are still malleable and relatively free of sexual and reproductive health problems and gender role bias, very young adolescents can be guided safely through this life stage, supported by their parents, families and communities."
These findings call into question the wisdom of sex education, even in the US, that starts well-after most teenagers have already become sexually active as well as abstinence-based programs. But, the study authors emphasize that formal sexual education is especially important in lower- and middle-income countries, where 90 percent of the world's adolescents live.
The World Heath Organization reports that complications from pregnancy and childbirth is the second leading cause of death for adolescent girls, and each year, an estimated 529,000 women and girls die worldwide - some 70,000 from unsafe abortion - with millions more left maimed or injured. Ninety-nine percent of these pregnancy-related deaths occur in the developing world. While there are many other factors compounding this issue, including child marriage and lack of access to modern contraception, improved sexual health education for adolescents could help to prevent some of the thousands of maternal deaths worldwide, as well as the spread of HIV/AIDS.
After three days of unprecedented meetings between the US and leaders from nearly 50 African countries, the US Africa Leaders Summit ended Wednesday. In addition to public and private commitments of up to $33 billion for trade and investment, the United States called on leaders of the African continent to make a considerable investment in advancing the status of women and girls.
Before the summit kicked off, First Lady Michelle Obama addressed the Mandela Washington Fellowship for Young African Leaders, part of the President's Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI). There, she emphasized the need to address the status of women and girls across the African continent and commit to making girls' education a priority. "We all know that the problem here isn't only about resources, it's also about attitudes and beliefs. It's about whether fathers and mothers think their daughters are as worthy of an education as their sons. It's about whether societies cling to outdated laws and traditions that oppress and exclude women, or whether they view women as full citizens entitled to fundamental rights," she said.
Mrs. Obama acknowledged the advances made in decreasing maternal mortality, and increasing female legislative representation, but she explicitly condemned gender-based violence, including female genital mutilation (FGM), forced child marriage, human trafficking, rape, and domestic violence, calling the practices "serious human rights violations" not "legitimate cultural practices."
"These practices have no place in our shared future, because we all know that our future lies in our people - in their talent, their ambition, their drive," Mrs. Obama said. "And no country can ever truly flourish if it stifles the potential of its women and deprives itself of the contributions of half of its citizens."
President Barack Obama echoed the same sentiment when he announced an infusion of $3.3 billion to support the first of four regional leadership centers being established across the continent to spur youth cultural and economic development. "If you're a strong man, you should not feel threatened by a strong woman," he told the group during a town hall. The leadership centers - which will launch first in Kenya in 2015, then expand to Ghana, Senegal, and South Africa - will provide leadership training and professional development opportunities to young Africans who aspire to leadership roles across the continent, most of whose population is under the age of 35 and predominantly female in many countries.
Wednesday, the last day of the official Summit, First Lady Michelle Obama and her predecessor, Laura Bush, turned the focus to the health needs of African women and girls. The two called on first ladies to maximize their role for the benefit of the continent's females. Former President George W. Bush also addressed women's health needs, announcing commitments of $2.2 million from drug maker GlaxoSmithKline and the Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation to expand the Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon health partnership program on the continent.
Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon is a joint effort founded by the Bush Institute in Dallas, along with PEPFAR, Susan G. Komen, and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). The program works to reduce the rate of breast cancer and cervical cancer, the top cancer killer of women in sub-Saharan Africa.
The White House called this week's summit the largest event any US President has held with African heads of state and government.
The first World Day against Trafficking in Persons took place Wednesday in an effort by the United Nations to bring attention to the continuing need for international support to help trafficking victims and end impunity for perpetrators.
Millions of people are still trafficked every year, sold to work in brothels, fields, and sweatshops. Although men, women, and children are trafficked globally, human trafficking, according to the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, affects women and girls more than any other group in the world, and a majority of all people trafficked - 79 percent - are sexually exploited.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said, "This first World Day against Trafficking in Persons is a call to action to end this crime and give hope to the victims, who often live unrecognized among us."
The World Day against Trafficking in Persons will be held every year on July 30. The resolution to create the World Day was adopted by the UN in 2013. The resolution stated the day is necessary to "raise awareness of the situation of victims of human trafficking and for the promotion and protection of their rights."
The Twitter hashtag #IGiveHope was used in conjunction with the World Day against Trafficking in Persons to show solidarity with the millions of people who suffer as a direct result of the human-trafficking crisis.
Human trafficking is considered a form of modern-day slavery. It is ranked as the third greatest revenue source of organized crime after narcotics and arms, according to the UN. The people who are trafficked tend to be those who are already victims of war, poverty, discrimination and/or violence. The most common forms of trafficking are: labor trafficking, which includes child labor, child soldiering and working in sweatshops; sex trafficking, which includes child sex tourism and "mail order brides;" and domestic servitude.
Norway has provided a $15 million grant to the Nigerian government to help the country reduce maternal and child mortality. The grant comes days after the Nigerian Demographic Health Survey of 2013 results spotlighted persistently high rates of child marriages and maternal deaths across the nation.
Nigeria currently accounts for 13 percent of the world's maternal deaths, with 36,000 women dying in pregnancy or childbirth each year. The Nigerian Health Ministry is currently working to carry out the Harmonized Country Plan of Priority Interventions (HCPPI) with the intention to save the lives of an additional 420,000 mothers and children by 2015 at a total cost of $650 million, but was facing a significant challenge funding the program. With Norway's help, the program will now flourish.
"The Tripartite Agreement we have signed today represents one of the many efforts to meet the resource gap," said Nigeria's Minister of Health, Onyebuchi Chukwu. "We have available commitments totaling $121 million currently being mobilized through projects from the Private Health Sector Alliance, UNICEF, GFATM, the Federal Ministry of Health, USAID, and GE Healthy Imagination among other, leaving $299 [million] outstanding."
Nigeria's HCCPI will target three northern states - Kaduna, Kano, and Katsina - and expects to reduce maternal and neonatal death by 40 percent before the end of 2015, saving the lives of 2961 mothers' lives and 19,825 small children.
In allowing for better implementation of HCPPI, Norway's grant will help Nigeria meet the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)by next year. The fourth and fifth MDGs called on countries to reduce the under-five mortality rate by two thirds, reduce their national maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters, and achieve universal access to reproductive health and family planning. In Nigeria, only 9.8 percent of women are using family planning services, and 16.1 percent have an unmet need for family planning services.
7/16/2014 - Church of England Votes to Allow Women Bishops
The General Synod, the decision-making body of the Church of England, voted Monday to allow women to become bishops. The Archbishop of Canterbury, the Most Rev. Justin Welby, supported the vote, saying he thought the public would find the exclusion of women "almost incomprehensible."
"This is a watershed moment for the Church of England and a huge step forward in making our society fairer," said Nick Clegg, the deputy prime minister of England. "Allowing women to become bishops is another long overdue step towards gender equality in senior positions. I welcome the Church of England's decision which means that women can now play a full and equal role in the important work of the Church."
Parliament will now consider the changes. If Parliament approves them, a formal announcement will be made in November at the next meeting for the General Synod. Women can start to be appointed as assistant bishops early next year, and the first woman could be appointed as bishop by next summer.
The General Synod began to ordain women as priests in 1994. Women now hold senior positions and make up about one-third of Anglican clerics. A strong push to allow women to become bishops began in 2005, but a small margin of lay representatives in the General Synod blocked it in 2012. This conflict led to discord within the church, as well as between the church and the government, since it is the official church of England.
Women already serve as bishops in some countries with Anglican Communion churches, such as the United States, Australia, and Canada, while others do not even ordain women as priests.
The Nigerian Demographic Health Survey of 2013 (NDHS) revealed persistently high child marriage rates and a need for increased family planning resources in Nigeria.
Nigeria accounts for 13 percent of global maternal death rates, with 36,000 women dying in pregnancy or child birth each year. An estimated 222 million women around the world wish to either delay or prevent pregnancy, but lack access to contraceptives - and Nigeria is no exception. The NDHS revealed that only 9.8 percent of Nigerian women use family planning, while 16.1 percent have an unmet need for family planning services. Although Nigeria has made significant progress in decreasing maternal deaths across the nation, the study also showed that only half of Nigerian women had four antenatal care visits and only 38 percent of births were assisted by an attendant. 70 percent of Nigeria's deaths are caused by abortion complications, hemorrage, eclampsia, or sepsis.
Additionally, as many as 17 million girls across Africa, or 1 in 3, are married before age 18, often against their will. According to the NDHS, 78 percent of girls between the ages of 15 and 19 are married in Nigeria's Jigawa state, making it the state with the most early marriages, but child marriage rates across Nigeria often outpace those in other nations around the world. Girls who are married as children face sexual violence and abuse, are more likely to suffer from maternal death and injury due to early pregnancies or other complications and less likely to get an education.
The African Union launched its first campaign to end child marriage last month, and the Child Rights Act raised the minimum age of marriage to 18 for girls when it was passed in 2003, but federal law is sometimes implemented differently at the state level, and only a few of Nigeria's states have acted to implement the law. The UNFPA has urged Nigeria to take additional action to prevent 4.6 million girls from marrying before 18 by 2030.
"Ending child marriage requires strategies for girls' empowerment, social and cultural norms change, legal reform and policy action," the UNFPA stated to the Daily Times. "Proven solutions involve girls schooling (especially lower secondary) and programmes that offer life skills, literacy, health information and services that offer life skills, literacy, health information and services, and social support."
TAKE ACTION! Organize on campus for global women's reproductive rights with Feminist Campus, and sign FMF's petition to integrate HIV/AIDS services with family planning services across the globe.
The Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) called on Pope Francis yesterday to take "tangible steps" to prevent widespread sexual abuse by clergy members instead of asking for forgiveness from victims.
Yesterday Pope Francis met with six people who were sexually abused by clergy members as children to ask for their forgiveness. He led them in a private mass and met individually with the survivors, one man and one woman each from Ireland, Britain, and Germany. In his homily yesterday, he also pledged to crack down on child sexual abusers in the clergy.
Although advocates for survivors were glad to see the Pope call for more accountability, advocates feared that the meeting was simply a public relations stunt, allowing Catholic church leaders to sidestep dealing with the issue head-on. "These meetings are public relations coups for the Vatican and distracting placebos for others. They provide temporary but false hope," said Mary Caplan, a member of SNAP. "In meetings, people can share knowledge. But Catholic officials don't lack knowledge. They lack courage - the courage to be honest, to "out" and oust their criminal colleagues, both those who commit and conceal sexual violence against children. And they lack the incentive to act responsibly because those who act irresponsibly are virtually never defrocked, demoted, disciplined or even defrocked. No meeting with victims - however many or compelling or articulate they may be - changes this fundamental, distressing and unhealthy reality."
Barbara Blaine, Founder and President of SNAP, who was herself raped by a parish priest as a teenager, commented that sexual abuse by church clergy and its cover up is still ongoing. "Stop talking about the crisis as though it's past tense, and stop delaying while your abuse panel discusses details," Blaine said. "You know the right thing to do."
SNAP released a statement with 15 steps the Vatican could take to protect children from sexual abuse and hold offending clergy members accountable. Among other things, SNAP calls on the Vatican to insist that bishops permanently post information about child molesting clerics on diocesan and parish websites; to ensure that only licensed therapists work with abuse victims, instead of priests or nuns; and to use independent corrections staff to monitor child molesting clerics instead of other clergy members.
In the US alone, between 1950 and 2010, 6,100 priests were accused of abuse, leading to an estimated 100,000 victims. Globally, thousands more have been accused, and they have been frequently protected from punishment by being transferred to a different parish where they could start abusing others, as shown in recently released documents of the Chicago archdiocese.
While the Vatican has known about this issue for decades, they have done little to hold abusers accountable. The United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child released a report demanding the Vatican take action in February, and the UN Committee Against Torture held a hearing to question Vatican leaders about their actions to address global child sexual abuse.
The House Appropriations Committee passed the fiscal year 2015 State Department and Foreign Operations appropriations bill yesterday with an amendment to remove a provision banning the Peace Corps from funding abortions for its volunteers, even in cases of rape or incest.
Unlike other employees with federal health care plans - including Peace Corps employees - Peace Corps volunteers currently do not have access to abortion coverage even in cases of rape, incest, or endangered health or life. The Republican-controlled committee had blocked previous efforts to repeal this restriction, but yesterday the amendment passed by a voice vote with bipartisan support. The Senate Appropriations Committee voted to approve an identical amendment last week. The full House and Senate must now vote on the FY 2015 appropriations legislation for the repeal to go into effect.
"With today's vote, no longer will women in the Peace Corps be denied coverage for abortion care after they've been raped or when they face life-threatening pregnancy complications," said Nancy Northop, president of the Center for Reproductive Rights. "And no longer will they have to face the indignity of being forced to pay for essential medical care with their own limited resources." Peace Corps volunteers, more than 60 percent of whom are women, receive only a small stipend of $250-$300 per month.
Although the Peace Corps amendment was a victory for reproductive health and rights, the House Appropriations Committee failed to pass three other amendments that would have improved US funding for reproductive health programs. Congresswoman Barbara Lee (D-CA) introduced an amendment to strike the Global Gag Rule from the appropriations bill. The Global Gag Rule prohibits foreign organizations who received US funds from counseling, advocating, or making referrals on abortion. That amendment failed by 19-25 vote.
"Year after year, Republicans attempt to reinstate the Global Gag Rule. This policy endangers the lives of low-income women around the world by denying funds for critical health services," said Lee in a statement. "I remain committed to the fight to prevent this dangerous policy from being reinstated."
Amendments offered by Congresswoman Rosa DeLauro (D-CT) to remove restrictions on US funding for UNFPA, and Congresswoman Debbie Wasserman-Schultz (D-FL) to strike language that caps overall funding for international family planning and reproductive health at no more than $461 million - a 25 percent cut from the 2014 level of $610 million - were also defeated.
If passed, these amendments to the appropriations bill would have improved, or even saved, the lives of thousands of women and girls around the world. Approximately 99 percent of pregnancy related deaths occur in the developing world. Each year, 529,000 women and girls die worldwide due to complications related to pregnancy, and millions more are left maimed or injured. In addition, some 70,000 women and girls die annually from unsafe, often illegal abortions.
Engaging the US in the global fight to end gender-based violence will take center stage tomorrow as part of a Senate subcommittee hearing aimed at fully combating violence and discrimination against women worldwide.
Senator Barbara Boxer (D-CA), chair of the Senate Foreign RelationsSubcommittee on International Operations and Organizations, Human Rights, Democracy, and Global Women's Issues hearingwill preside over the hearing at which several women Senators will testify, including Senators Elizabeth Warren (D-MA), Mazie Hirono (D-HI), Heidi Heitkamp (D-ND), Tammy Baldwin (D-WI), Dianne Feinstein (D-CA), Debbie Stabenow (D-MI), Amy Klobuchar (D-MN), and Patty Murray (D-WA).
The Senate Subcommittee hearing will focus on how the US and the international community can work to prevent violence against women, promote women's rights, and empower women and girls globally. Senator Boxer introduced the bipartisan International Violence Against Women Act (IVAWA) in May as a step toward reducing violence against women worldwide. The international community has also used the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), also known as the Women's Treaty, as a tool to fight violence against women globally. Although 187 countries have ratified the treaty, the US has not, joining Iran, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Tonga, and Palau in its failure to ratify CEDAW.
Gender-based violence is the most widespread human rights violation around the world. According to the World Health Organization at least 35% of women worldwide have experienced either intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime, although some national studies show prevalence rates as high as 70%. In conflict zones, women are more susceptible to rape, which has been systematically used as a weapon of war. Child marriage also continues to be a scourge. More than 64 million girls worldwide are child brides who suffer from sexual assault and life-threatening early pregnancy. One in nine girls in the developing world are married before age 15, and 90% of pregnancies to girls under age 18 occur within child marriage according to a recent UNFPA report.
Follow @FemMajority for live tweets during tomorrow's hearing, starting at 9:45am.You can also watch the webcast.
Community and religious leaders in the United Kingdom came together this week to condemn the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM).
The Church of England and the Muslim Women's Network UK were two of 160 groups who supported the announcement denouncing FGM as a form of violence against women and a denial of women's human rights not supported by religious doctrine. The groups will sign a joint declaration condemning FGM - currently a criminal offense in the UK - during the government's Girl Summit in July.
"No girl or woman should ever be forced to choose between her safety and her religious community and tradition and it is our sacred obligation to be just agents of change against this unjust practice," said Shahin Ashraf, Muslim Chaplain and National Network Coordinator for the Muslim Women's Network UK.
Sometimes referred to as female genital cutting or female circumcision, FGM is the removal or cutting of part or all of a woman or girl's genitals. The practice, which is medically unnecessary, can lead to serious health issues such as infection, illness and death. FGM still affects up to 140 million women and girls worldwide, with an estimated 20,000 girls at risk in the UK.
The practice of FGM on girls under 18 was made a crime in the United States in 1996. The law was strengthened by President Obama in 2013 to make it a crime to transport a girl outside of the US for the purpose of subjecting her to FGM.