Title IX Defined
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
(Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. To honor one of its key Congressional sponsors, it was named the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act on October 9, 2002. )
What is Title IX?
As part of the Education Amendments of 1972, Title IX prohibits discrimination in education on the basis of sex. Title IX covers all levels and areas of education, including athletics and vocational/technical education. Title IX has helped women and girls, men and boys benefit from more equitable treatment and attain more equitable outcomes. However, gender disparities based on traditional stereotypes and subtle but damaging discrimination persist.
"Gender Issues: Women's Participation in the Sciences Has Increased, but Agencies Need to Do More to Ensure Compliance with Title IX ," the July 2004 report from the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), describes how the US Department of Justice works with 21 federal agencies including NASA, the Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) to implement the Final Common Rule. The Final Common Rule provides guidelines for enforcement of Title IX and is modeled after the Department of Education (ED) Title IX regulations. Unfortunately, many recipients of federal financial assistance from these science agencies fail to implement or report on their Title IX compliance activities or to designate a Title IX coordinator.
Early history of Title IX - Dr. Bernice Sandler, “Godmother of Title IX” describes the creation of this civil rights law.
Title IX at 30 - This report card on gender equity is from the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education.
Title IX at 35: Beyond the Headlines - The 2008 Executive Summary (PDF) and full report (PDF) from the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education covers progress and challenges since the 2002 Title IX at 30 report.
The Triumphs of Title IX (PDF) are featured in the fall 2007 issue of Ms. magazine.
Game Changer: Title IX 40 Years (PDF) in the spring/summer 2012 issue of Ms. magazine.
TitleIX.info - This website provides a non-technical guide to ten key areas of Title IX.
Title IX Resources (PDF) - This list includes links to organizations and information to help you take advantage of Title IX.
Athletics and Title IX Resources (PDF) - This list includes links to organizations and resources to prevent sex discrimination in athletics programs and activities.
General Information on Title IX, its Regulations, and Coordinators
1972 Full Statute of Title IX and other Title IX information from the U.S. Department of Justice
List of State Title IX Gender Equity Coordinators from FMF (PDF)
2005 Additional Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy (Superceded by April 2010 guidance)
Equity in Athletics Data Analysis Cutting Tool Website
Required by the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act and its 1999 Regulations, this website managed by the Office of Postsecondary Education in the U.S. Department of Education provides required information on participation and support for women and men in college athletics.
Single Sex Education
Vocational Education and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics)
1979 Guidelines for Vocational Education Programs (Superseded by 1996 Memorandum)
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