Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. To honor one of its key Congressional sponsors, it was named the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act on October 9, 2002.
Title IX is most well-known for increasing women’s participation in sports. In 1971, only 294,015 girls participated in high school athletics. According to the National Federation of State High School Association in 2014, over 3.3 million girls participated in high school athletics, a 1022 percent increase from 1971. However, majority of high school and college athletes are still men.
Title IX is not just about sports. It prohibits gender-based discrimination at all levels of education, for both students and employees. In accordance with the 1987 Civil Rights Restoration Act, Title IX continues to apply to all education programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance. For example, it prohibits sex discrimination in facilities, access to courses, career guidance, student financial aid, health and insurance benefits, employment in educational institutions, and sexual harassment. In addition to schools and colleges, it covers scientific laboratories, prisons, museums, and a variety of other public and private institutions.
What is Title IX?
As part of the Education Amendments of 1972, Title IX prohibits discrimination in education on the basis of sex. Title IX covers all levels and areas of education, including athletics and vocational/technical education. Title IX has helped people of all genders benefit from more equitable treatment and attain more equitable outcomes. However, gender disparities based on traditional stereotypes and subtle but damaging discrimination persist.
“Gender Issues: Women’s Participation in the Sciences Has Increased, but Agencies Need to Do More to Ensure Compliance with Title IX ,” the July 2004 report from the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), describes how the US Department of Justice works with 21 federal agencies including NASA, the Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) to implement the Final Common Rule. The Final Common Rule provides guidelines for enforcement of Title IX and is modeled after the Department of Education (ED) Title IX regulations. Unfortunately, many recipients of federal financial assistance from these science agencies fail to implement or report on their Title IX compliance activities or to designate a Title IX coordinator.
Early history of Title IX – Dr. Bernice Sandler, “Godmother of Title IX” describes the creation of this civil rights law.
Title IX at 30 – This report card on gender equity is from the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education.
Title IX at 35: Beyond the Headlines – The 2008 Executive Summary (PDF) and full report (PDF) from the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education covers progress and challenges since the 2002 Title IX at 30 report.
Title IX at 40: Working to Ensure Gender Equity in Education–The 2012 Executive Summary (PDF) and full report (PDF) from the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education.
Title IX at 45: Advancing Opportunity Through Equity in Education—The 2017 full report (PDF) is by the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education
The Triumphs of Title IX (PDF) are featured in the fall 2007 issue of Ms. magazine.
Game Changer: Title IX 40 Years (PDF) in the spring/summer 2012 issue of Ms. magazine.
Organizations and Handouts Related to Title IX (PDF) – This list includes links to organizations and information to help you take advantage of Title IX.
Handbook Chapter on the Role of Government in Advancing Gender Equity in Education: This chapter from Handbook for Achieving Gender Equity Through Education, 2nd Edition 2007 details the importance of the government in the full implementation of Title IX.
Athletics and Title IX Resources (PDF) – This list includes links to organizations and resources to prevent sex discrimination in athletics programs and activities.
Patsy T. Mink Gender Equity in Education Act of 2019. Introduced by Rep. Hirono as S.3147 and Representative Slaughter as HR 5682 in 2016 and in slightly revised forms in 2017 as S.1421 and H.R. 3828 and in 2018 as H.R. 6184. Newest version (2019) introduced by Rep. Matsui as H.R. 3513. Proposed comprehensive legislation to support Title IX Coordinators and fully implement Title IX.
Federal and FMF Title IX Documents and Data
General Information on Title IX, its Regulations, and Coordinators
1972 Full Statute of Title IX and other Title IX information from the U.S. Department of Justice
Reinvigorating the Role of the Title IX Coordinator: A Requirement and Resource (Executive Summary PDF and full report PDF from the Feminist Majority Foundation)
2005 Additional Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy (Superceded by April 2010 guidance)
Equity in Athletics Data Analysis Cutting Tool Website
Required by the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act and its 1999 Regulations, this website managed by the Office of Postsecondary Education in the U.S. Department of Education provides required information on participation of women and men in college athletics.
Fighting Sexual Harassment and Assault Related Discrimination
1979 Title IX Regulations contain protections against pregnancy related discrimination for students and employees.
2014 NotAlone report (PDF) contains guidance on preventing campus sexual assault.
2015 Won’t Back Down: Student activists and survivors are using the legal system to fight sexual assault and harassment on college campuses Gaylynn Burroughs and Debra Katz, Ms. Magazine, Summer 2015 (PDF)
Single Sex Education
2015 Webinar on Title IX and Single-Sex Classes from the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education and the US Department of Education (See right side of home page for audio and presenter slides)
Civil Rights of Transgender Students
Pregnancy Related Discrimination
Vocational/Career Technical Education and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics)
1979 Guidelines for Vocational Education Programs (Superseded by 1996 Memorandum)
# Guidance Documents withdrawn by ED and in one case also DOJ.