Increased Attacks against Hazaras in Afghanistan; Mostly Girls and Women Killed and Wounded

Since the Taliban takeover, Human Rights Watch has documented 16 attacks against Hazaras that have killed and wounded at least 700 people. The September 30th attack on an educational center in a predominantly Hazara neighborhood of Kabul killed 53 and injured more than 110 people, all of whom were recent high school graduates. Girls and women were the primary victims. Days following the attack, the Taliban violently broke protests of women who were demonstrating against the targeted killings of Hazaras.

Although ISIS-K has taken responsibility for most of the attacks against Hazaras and minorities in Afghanistan, the Taliban has failed to protect religious and ethnic minorities.

According to an official from the learning center, about 600 students were taking a mock university entrance exam when gunmen entered the building. Per new rules of the Taliban, girls and boys sit separately, with classrooms often segregated by a curtain. The suicide attacker targeted the girls’ side, killing a majority of them.

Another recent attack on the Kaaj learning center, a private tutoring center, was the fourth targeting schools and learning centers in the Hazara neighborhood since 2018, leaving dozens killed and injured. The same center under another name, Mawoud Academy, was attacked in 2018, leaving 40 dead and 67 wounded.

With public schools being closed to girls, private schools and tutoring centers have become a lifeline for Afghan girls determined to continue their education. The academies and learning centers offer additional training and help in succeeding in school and entrance exams to universities. Students seeking extra help in these centers have dreams and hopes, but many of them will not be able to realize those dreams due to ongoing attacks and violent threats.

As many Afghan women predicted, since the Taliban takeover, the group has enforced many restrictions against women, depriving them of public education, employment, social and political participation, and equal opportunities to prosper. Millions of Afghan girls are banned by the Taliban authorities from attending schools beyond grade 6th. The Taliban, however, has not prevented women from pursuing higher education at the college level, although the regime recently limited what fields the girls can study. Despite these significant restrictions on women’s rights and equal opportunities, Afghan women and girls defiantly continue to fight for them. While these attacks are major setbacks, Afghan women continue to show determination and resilience in demanding their rights and status in society since the Taliban took power last year.

Afghan Women Reject Taliban Decree That Women Must Wear Head-to-Toe Coverings

A new Taliban decree requires Afghan women to cover themselves from head to toe, and deputizes men to force women to follow the rule.

In the eight months since the Taliban returned to power in Afghanistan, the group has reinstated its repressive rules in full force, specifically targeting women and girls. Among many restrictions introduced, secondary school-age girls have been restricted from schools, women public servants have been removed from their jobs, women can no longer travel alone, and public and academic spaces have become limited and segregated. 

With the Taliban’s latest decree issued Saturday, women are now required to cover themselves from head to toe—preferably using a burka. The burka is a blue garment, long considered emblematic of the Taliban oppression of women in Afghanistan. 

The new edict from the Ministry for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice goes beyond targeting women on the street. It also officially deputizes men to force women to follow the rules, punishing the male guardian for failing to force the women of the family to abide by the new ruling. 

Per the edict, “hejab or covering according to Islam is mandatory”—and women who do not obey the rule will be punished. For their first violation, the woman will be visited by ministry officials who will speak with her guardian to ensure that she dresses according to the rule. 

For a second violation of the rule, her guardian must be called to come to the relevant office of the Taliban in the area. After a third violation, the guardian will be put in prison for three days. For a fourth violation, the guardian will be summoned to the religious court and receive further punishment.

The decree also states that the women who still work with government institutions would be subject to removal from work should they refuse to cover up. Under Taliban rule, the number of women doctors, nurses and teachers has already decreased significantly. Male government employees whose women family members don’t comply with the rule could be subject to suspension.

Adding Fuel to the Domestic Violence Crisis

Domestic violence has already been exacerbated by the ongoing humanitarian and economic crisis—and this edict further adds fuel to the fire, requiring men to enforce the decree under threat of Taliban persecution.

The Taliban’s obsession with women is nothing new: Under its first rule in the 1990s, the group heavily restricted women’s rights. This second time around, the group has reinstated all their previous policies against women—but has gone further by tasking men with ensuring that women family members comply with rules.

The Taliban Edict About Women in Education Is Not Islamic or Cultural

The Taliban’s edicts dictating women and girls’ place in daily life—from barring them from education to demanding full coverage including the face and hands—have no precedence in Afghanistan or any other Muslim-majority country. For years, the Taliban restricted women’s rights and justified their actions under the guise of Islam, which is consistently met with a backlash from global Islamic scholars and advocates.

With each subsequent edict, the Taliban further removes Afghan women from public life. With other crises around the world, Afghan people, particularly women, are disappointed at the world looking the other way in silence. Without women as full members of society, there can be no peace and stability in Afghanistan. 

Two Months in, the Taliban Continues to Abandon Girls’ Education

Earlier this week, at a speaking engagement in Doha, the foreign minister of the Taliban, Amir Khan Mottaqi avoided answering questions about education for women and girls and reiterated that they need more time on girls’ education.

In response to questions on girls’ education, the Minister used “cultural appropriations” as the argument for not allowing girls above grade 6 to attend schools. “In Afghanistan, there is one thing that the Afghans want and then there is another thing that the international community wants. One of the reasons that it didn’t work over the past 20 years, is that it was against the will of the Afghan people.” Previously, the group used security as the main reason for not allowing girls to attend schools.

While the minister uses “cultural” differences as the means for preventing girls from attending school, he is disregarding the real “wants of the Afghan society.” In surveys done over the past 20 years, an overwhelming majority of the Afghan people in rural and urban areas want education for themselves and their children. In a survey done by the Asia Foundation in 2019, support for women’s educational opportunities was at 86.6%. The same survey found out that 76% of the respondents supported women’s right to employment.

The Taliban’s minister for foreign affairs is currently in Doha meeting with officials from the US, EU, Britain, and the gulf. In his remarks, he demanded that the US releases Afghanistan’s assets worth $9bn and that the world should work with them.

Access to education and opportunities to women were considered some of the top achievements of the past 20 years and since the collapse of the former government on August 15th, women are not allowed to work and girls above grade 6 are told to stay home until further notice. Boys of all ages are allowed to go to school, and only women in healthcare are allowed to work.

Over the course of the negotiations with the US and the Afghan government, the Taliban stated that they will allow girls to study, women to work and that they did not intend to “monopolize” power. The group’s leaders also insist that their agreement with the US remains valid. However, after two months in power, the Taliban continues to violate the commitments they made in the agreement with the US and appears determined to weaponize women’s education and employment.

Sources: Keynote speaker Doha 10/11/2021/ Relief Web 12/3/19

The Taliban Announces Additional Government Officials, All Members of Their Old Guard

Early this week, the Taliban announced additional members of their cabinet, and once again, all of them are the old guard of the Taliban, despite promises of an inclusive government during peace talks. The 38 new members of the interim government of the Taliban were appointed to military and civilian positions.

On September 7th, the Taliban announced a “caretaker government”, many of the officials coming from the Taliban’s old guard, hardliners, and almost half of them are on international sanction or terrorist lists. The second announcement of the government’s high-ranking jobs is a major step towards reestablishing their dictatorial and extreme rule, similar to that of the 1990s.

Soon after the announcement of the cabinet, the supreme leader of the Taliban asked his cabinet members to uphold Sharia law. In his statement, Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada said that the Taliban want “strong and healthy relations with our neighbors and all other countries based on mutual respect and interaction.” However, he clarified that they would only respect international laws and treaties “that are not in conflict with Islamic law and the country’s national values”. He refers to the Taliban’s ideas of Islamic law and values, as most Afghans do not share the same radical views on the role of women, minorities, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and other principles of democracy and equality.

Over the past two years during the negotiations, the Taliban leaders gave assurances that they did not intend to monopolize power, that they would be more moderate than they were during the late 1990s when the Taliban was first in power, that women will be allowed to work in public offices, and that it will be an inclusive government. The two announcements of the members of the Taliban cabinet and other high-ranking officials in the new government indicate that the group’s conservative core and exclusive nature of ruling have not changed. Despite calls from the international community for a government that is representative of gender and ethnic diversity of Afghanistan, the group has continued to implement its core conservative values on the people.

ToloNews 10/5/21; BBC 9/7/21; AP 7/23/21

The Taliban issued a statement only calling for boys to return to school

On Sep. 17, the Taliban issued a statement calling only for boys to return to secondary schools. The statement did not include girls. When the schools reopened the next day, millions of girls across the country did not return to their classes, depriving them of their basic right to education.

Students in secondary schools are aged between 13-18 and under the former government, they were already segregated by gender and studied on separate campuses or different shifts of the day. The announcement has stirred more fears among the Afghan people. They fear this is just another measure to curb women’s rights, freedoms, and access to education and opportunities.

Over the past two decades, progress and opportunities for women were some of the most prominent achievements of the Afghan people, and access to education was at the top of those achievements. Under the Taliban rule in 1996-2001, girls were banned from going to school. Those who did seek education did so in underground schools and risked their safety, as did their teachers.

From 2002 – 2021, with help from the international community, schools reopened for boys and girls in Afghanistan, and nearly 40% of secondary students were girls. Now a month after the Taliban takeover, the Taliban has curbed much of women’s rights and freedoms. Women public servants are told to stay home until further notice, nurseries in government buildings are closed, and those who protest are met with violence. Reportedly, house-to-house searches are still ongoing, searching for women leaders as well as those officials and activists who opposed the Taliban.

Under the government of the past 20 years, Afghan women were guaranteed equal rights under the Constitution of Afghanistan, and although not always perfect in practice, they had access to justice, education, health services, and employment opportunities. Women were 25% of the parliament and served as department heads (secretaries), deputies, advisors, and so on. Those guarantees are no longer valid as the Taliban announced that women cannot serve in high-ranking jobs.

Soon after the collapse of the previous government, private universities reopened with a Taliban order to segregate classes by gender, mandating that male and female students must enter from different entrances, prohibiting any interaction between male and female students. Public universities remain shut and it is likely that women will not be allowed to attend, or they will be segregated with an imposed uniform to conform with the Taliban view of covering (hijab) for women.

Taliban statement, Sep. 17, 2021/ World Bank, Sep. 20, 2020

The Taliban’s Cabinet is Mostly Men, Many of Whom Are on Sanctions or Terror Lists

Last week, after much anticipation, the Taliban announced a new government that does not include women or minorities, and a majority – 17 — of them are either on sanctions or terror lists. The list does not include anyone from another political party. It is yet another blatant move by the Taliban, breaking their promise of inclusivity and diversity.

In this provisional government of the Taliban, posts are given to long-time leaders of the group and among them, one man, Sirajuddin Haqqani, stands out in particular. Haqqani, the appointed new interior minister is a close ally of Al-Qaeda, is a man wanted by the FBI, with a $10 million dollar bounty on his head. Haqqani is also the leader of the notorious Haqqani network, founded by his father. The acting defense minister, Mullah Yakub, is the son of the Taliban’s founding member.

The Women’s Affairs Ministry did not make it to the list of the ministries of the Taliban, leading many to believe it will be terminated. Instead, the Ministry of the Propagation of Virtue and Vice made it to the list. This ministry existed during the Taliban regime in the 1990s, which was infamous for forcing people to follow the edicts of the Taliban, ensures that the strictest interpretation of Sharia is implemented on the people.

Since the takeover on August 15th, the situation remains fluid and people are fearful for their lives. The Taliban ordered women to stay at home until further notice and as students returned to universities, they found that their classes were segregated by gender. Women are not allowed to serve in higher levels in the government and will not be allowed to play the kind of sports that “exposes” their bodies. Music has been banned in public spaces, journalists are being arrested and beaten, and the group routinely engaged in surveillance activities as well as cut internet services in certain parts of Kabul.

As the situation evolves daily, it is clear that the prospects are looking bleak for the Afghan people, especially, for the youth and women. Their hard-won rights, freedoms, gains of the past 20 years are in danger, and their access to opportunities has been constrained. What comes next is uncertain, but what is certain for now is that life has become difficult.

Afghan women are protesting in front of their oppressors and at gun points

Hours after the Taliban disrupted women’s protest at gun points in Kabul today, the group announced their provisional government that does not include women. The Ministry of Women’s Affairs did not appear on their list of ministries and is most likely to be abolished. A new ministry was added to the list – the Ministry of Virtue and Vice that the Taliban had during their ruling in the 1990s which was notorious for enforcing their edicts on the people. 

Since the Taliban takeover of the government, Taliban announced that women cannot work in high ranking posts in the new government, women as civil servants were ordered to stay home until further notice, and co-education has been banned in public and private universities. The universities opened yesterday with classes segregated by gender. Just like when the Taliban was in power in the 1990s, this time as they were taking each district and province, they banned music once again as well. 

Despite the fluid and uncertain situation and at grave risks to their lives, Afghan women have held protests and marches for several days starting in Herat, Kabul, and today expanding to Mazar-e-Sharif in the north of the country too. Afghan women are demanding their equal rights be preserved, their achievements of the past 20 years be built upon, and that without women’s meaningful participation, the government cannot function. 

Protesters are chanting for “freedom” and “death to the Taliban”

Today, another massive protest was held in Kabul against Pakistan’s interference in Afghanistan after the head of Pakistani intelligence agency visited Kabul to meet with the Taliban leadership. According to different accounts of individuals from the protest, thousands of women demonstrated against the visit and interference of Pakistan in Afghanistan. Some Afghan men joined the march to the embassy of Pakistan as well. Heavily armed Taliban broke up the demonstration today as well by shooting their guns into the air. 

Similarly in Kabul, as women marched towards the Presidential Palace and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in their protest on September 4th, Taliban fired their guns into the air, beating up women and injuring one on her fore head. Taliban also used tear gas against the protesters. Some women protestors shared videos in which women were not allowed by the Taliban to join the protests. They were guarded at a parking lot by the Taliban. 

Unlike the 1990s, the Taliban faces a resolute, better connected, and more informed public, especially the women who are determined to continue to fight for their rights. On September 4, in one of the first protests, Taliban whipped and lashed women by an electric cord as they were marching on the streets of Kabul, demanding representation and equal rights. The next day the women were out marching again. The barbarity of flogging people in public appears to be the same, as it was in the 1990s. 

Afghan men and women as well as those outside the country have been amazed at the courage of Afghan women protesting in the face of heavily armed Taliban forces. Many social media accounts applaud the bravery of Afghan women for standing up for their rights at a time when they are told to stay put in their homes. During this difficult transition, one that many still wish it was simply a bad dream, the Afghan women have shown that they will not stay silent and will continue to demand their rights. 

While life remains uncertain and difficult for all Afghans, especially women as they once again fight for their existence, it is clear for now that Afghan women are determined, on their own, to continue their fight to march forward and not go back to a time when they were confined to their homes, with no rights to education, employment or political representation.

Feminist and Human Rights Groups to Biden and Harris: Do Not Recognize Taliban Regime and Honor U.S. Commitments to Aid Afghan Women and Girls

Washington, DC—The Feminist Majority Foundation (FMF) has delivered a letter co-signed by 85 women and human rights activists, leaders, and organizations to President Biden and Vice President Harris asking that they swiftly act to protect the women and girls of Afghanistan whose lives are now at risk as the Taliban takes control of the country.

The letter states: “[W]e implore your administration not to agree to a deal that includes recognition and support of a Taliban regime. The U.S. and U.N. previously refused to recognize the Taliban based on their brutal disregard of human rights, especially of women and girls. Any deal by the United States that would include recognition and support of the Taliban regime would be a reversal of U.S. commitments that were made to the Afghan people, especially women and girls, and would undermine commitments by the U.S and your administration to human rights globally and the Women, Peace and Security Act of 2017.

“Further, we implore you to take immediate action to save the lives of Afghan women’s rights and human rights leaders and advocates who have selflessly and courageously worked at great risk to advance the rights of women and girls and are now being targeted by the Taliban. We ask for the evacuation of these leaders and Afghan women students who have secured commitments at universities here to pursue their education. Safe passage to the United States must be provided immediately.”

Ellie Smeal, president of the FMF, issued the following statement: “The United States must not abandon Afghan women and girls. The United States cannot recognize a regime that has taken away basic human rights from women and girls and has shown with their current behavior that they plan to continue these brutal tactics. Feminist and Human Rights leaders implore President Biden and Vice President Harris to prioritize the evacuation of Afghan women leaders and activists, as well as human rights defenders whose lives are at risk as the Taliban takes control of Afghanistan. The Taliban is going to the homes of women’s leaders, and we fear they are being targeted for reprisal. The United States cannot abandon them when their lives are at stake.

The time to act is now:  women’s rights activists and journalists have been murdered, women and girls are being forced into sexual slavery with Taliban soldiers, and women and girls are forced to stay in their homes and punished for cell phone use. Hundreds of thousands of Afghan citizens, including children, are attempting to flee during a historic drought, the Coronavirus pandemic, and widespread hunger. The United States must prioritize the plight of Afghan women and girls and provide humanitarian aid immediately.”

Alongside FMF president Ellie Smeal, signatories of the letter include famed activist and labor organizer Dolores Huerta, Ambassador Melanne Verveer, Cecile Richards, co-founder of Supermajority and former president of Planned Parenthood, Carol Jenkins, president of the ERA Coalition, feminist activist Gloria Steinem, Christian Nunes, president of the National Organization for Women (NOW), Marcela Howell, president & CEO of In Our Own Voice: National Black Women’s Reproductive Justice Agenda, former senator Russ Feingold, Debra Ness, president of the National Partnership for Women and Families, Barbara Arnwine, president of the Transformative Justice Coalition, E. Faye Williams, PhD, president of the National Congress of Black Women.

The letter and full list of signatories can be found here.

Friends of Afghanistan Urge NATO and EU to Continue Support for Afghanistan

In a letter signed by prominent leaders and individuals worldwide, friends and supporters of Afghanistan urged NATO and the European Union that as U.S. and NATO forces withdraw from Afghanistan, “we must not abandon the Afghan people and their democratic republic.”

The letter signed by former foreign ministers, former ambassadors to Afghanistan, diplomats, along with a range of civil society groups and leaders states that while NATO armed forces are leaving Afghanistan, “it is the obligation of all NATO and European countries to continue to strongly stand by our Afghan partners.” The letter urges NATO and the EU to continue the financial support to the Afghan state, protect the human rights of Afghan women and girls, and continue to provide “robust financial” support to the Afghan national security forces.

The letter calls for support in six major areas, including to protecting women’s rights and human rights and providing a robust and sustainable support to the Afghan state. It asks to reaffirm robust financial support to the Afghan national security forces, continue development assistance to key Afghan institutions, support a strong UN role in the Intra-Afghan peace talks, and reaffirm support to civil society and human rights groups.

The endorsees remind NATO and the European Union that the world has a “responsibility” to Afghanistan and that it “must come together in their support to the Afghan National Security Forces who are fighting to protect Afghan lives from terrorists as well as work towards our shared security interests.”

Eleanor Smeal, president of the Feminist Majority Foundation signed the letter, reiterating the importance of continued support to Afghanistan at this critical moment.

“We cannot stop our support and funding to the Afghan people, especially to the women and girls of Afghanistan. They need our assistance now more than ever as they try to defend their country and protect their people,” she said. Smeal has advocated for the human rights of Afghan women and girls for 25 years and believes that despite many challenges, “the Afghan people, especially women and girls, have achieved amazing gains in education, employment, leadership, health care and provide hope for an equal and prosperous society. Their tremendous efforts deserve our support.”

The U.S. has pledged to continue to provide support for the Afghan people, including Afghan women, girls, and minorities through development and humanitarian aid as well as the continued provision of security assistance to support Afghan National Defense and Security Forces. While such support and messaging from allies and partners is critical, it is important to stand with Afghanistan for years to come.

The letter highlights the current high levels of violence perpetrated by the Taliban and their affiliates “who are using violence to silence and oppress the Afghan people.” For over a year, the Taliban offensive attacks have been at its peak, targeting school girls, women leaders, journalists, judges, doctors, charity workers, teachers, government officials, minorities and even religious scholars.

The letter states that the “Afghan people, just as our other allies, deserve peace, justice, liberty and dignity” and that the “killing and destruction of the people and institutions that uphold our shared values is not only a threat to the Afghan people who have been our allies for twenty years, but also to our core principles, legitimacy and global security.”

Biden Pledges Support to Afghanistan Despite the US Troop Withdrawal

On June 25th in a state visit by the president of Afghanistan, Ashraf Ghani, President Biden pledged to continue to support Afghanistan, assuring the Afghan delegation that the United States will “maintain their military, as well as economic and political support.”

While vowing to continue the support to the Afghan people, President Biden also stressed that “Afghans are going to have to decide their future.” Biden stressed that the senseless killing of Afghans must stop but admitted that it is “going to be very difficult.”

The Afghan president and its delegation’s trip comes at a crucial time as U.S. and NATO troops are withdrawing from Afghanistan. The country is facing unprecedented levels of violence by the Taliban, ISIS, Al-Qaeda and their affiliates, targeting civilians, infrastructure and leaders. During a two day-visit, the Afghan delegation including four prominent Afghan women leaders, also met with Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin, Speaker Nancy Pelosi, and Members of Congress from both sides of the aisle.

Of the four women, Fatima Gailani, former head of the Afghan Red Crescent and Habiba Sarabi, former governor of Bamiyan province also met with the Democratic Women’s Caucus. In a press release by the Caucus, the leadership stated that they are aware of the difficult reality in Afghanistan right now and reiterated their support to women and girls in Afghanistan.

“We are committed to continuing to work with our President to provide humanitarian and security assistance to the Afghan people so that women and girls have adequate access to education, health care, economic security, and opportunity.” The Caucus leadership, Rep. Lois Frankel (D-FL) and Rep. Jackie Speier (D-CA) said that advancing the human rights of Afghan women and girls is “vital to making our world a more equitable and safe place for all.” 

Fatima Gailani and Habiba Sarabi have been negotiating on behalf of the Afghan government with the Taliban since September of 2020. Two other women leaders who accompanied Ashraf Ghani and the delegation were Shaharzad Akbar, Chair of the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission and Adela Raz, the Afghan Ambassador to the United Nations.

Habiba Sarabi and Fatima Gailani have been vocal on protecting the human rights of women and minorities and that these rights are non-negotiable. The women negotiators are firm in their belief that human rights must be protected and a democratic system of one-person-one-vote should remain to ensure equality in the country. Gailani and Sarabi told Members of the Democratic Women’s Caucus the Afghanistan-US relationship is important and that they hope members of Congress “will continue to speak for the human rights of our people, democracy in our country and the values and principles that we all share as humans.”

The Afghan delegation came to DC to ask for a continued U.S. support and partnership with the Afghan state to fight terrorism and defend human rights and democracy. A key member of the delegation, Abdullah Abdullah, who chairs the High Council for Peace in Afghanistan, met with President Biden as well. He emphasized that Al- Qaeda and other terrorist groups continue to be a threat to the security of the world. In an interview with the Associated Press, Abdullah said, “If Afghanistan is abandoned completely, without support, without engagement, there’s a danger that Afghanistan can turn once again into a haven for terrorist groups.”

Early this month, in a conversation with NPR reporter Renee Montagne the Afghan women negotiators reiterated that women have achieved a great deal over the past 20 years and do not want to go back to the time when they had no rights under the Taliban. Fatima Gailani, one of the women negotiators as well as a member of the delegation who visited DC told Montagne that it is important for the Taliban to understand that this is not the Afghanistan of 1990s when they ruled. “This is the Afghanistan where everyone is a part of it. Every ethnic group, every gender, every language, every sect in Islam—we are all together.”

Taliban Responsible for Great Majority of Attacks on Afghans, Says the U.N.

Signs of the Taliban reducing violence and committing to genuine and serious peace talks are far from sight, suggests a new report by the U.N. sounding the alarm that “unprecedented” level of violence from 2020 has carried onto 2021 and is likely to increase more this year. According to the report, the group “continues to strengthen its military position as leverage.”

According to the report, 2020 was the “most violent year ever recorded” by the U.N. in Afghanistan and attacks have increased 60 percent in the first three months of 2021 compared to the same period in 2020. The group uses violence as their main leverage in the peace talks, claims victory for defeating the U.S. forces in Afghanistan and views the elected government of Afghanistan a “puppet” of the West. 

The U.N. report highlights an important point: Violence has been unprecedented and the Taliban are behind a great majority of the attacks on the people. As the report suggests, these attacks “appear to be undertaken with the objective of weakening the capacity of the government and intimidating civil society.” Members of civil society, journalists and women professionals have been at the top of these attacks, creating panic and fear in the Afghan civil society.

“The Taliban’s messaging remains uncompromising, and it shows no sign of reducing the level of violence in Afghanistan to facilitate peace negotiations with the government of Afghanistan and other Afghan stakeholders,” reads the U.N. report.

The report affirms the Taliban remains close to Al-Qaeda and that it will return “to power by force if necessary.” It offers a grim view for the Afghan people post U.S. and NATO withdrawal from Afghanistan as well. The report compiled by the U.N. Monitoring Team covers a period of between May 2020 and April 2021, when the Taliban had entered an agreement with the U.S. in which they promised to cut their ties with Al-Qaeda, engage in meaningful negotiations with the Afghan government and reduce violence. According to the U.N. report, the Taliban has violated all of the above.

Over the past year since the intra-Afghan talks begin in September, violence against the Afghan people has been at the highest level and although major blasts have been less, the tactics to intimidate and kill people have changed. Targeted assassinations have been at the highest level—against members of civil society, judges, doctors, students, on- and off- duty public servants, and journalists.

In the last few years, religious scholars who are vocal critics against Taliban terrorism and leaders of government-initiated religious councils have been on the hit list as well. In the month of June alone, a woman journalist, Mina Khairi, her mother and sister, as well as a few other civilians were murdered in Kabul. The next day, a religious scholar was murdered in Herat, the west of Afghanistan. Following that attack, in another province, Badghis, a roadside bomb struck a passenger bus and killed 12 of them; four women and three children were among the dead.

In May, a girls’ school was targeted in which 90 people were killed—a majority of them school girls between the ages of 11 and 17. The school is located in a Hazara and Shia majority part of Kabul which has experienced similar major attacks in the past.

This report, along with experts, warn the Taliban has not changed; their ambition to return to power holds stronger than ever; the group has remained vague about human rights, women’s rights and the structure of government; continues to terrorize people and targets ethnic and religious minorities; and the production and trafficking of poppy remains their “largest single source of income.”

Even still, the U.S. and NATO forces are set to withdraw unconditionally by this summer. The high level of violence, an emboldened Taliban by the U.S., and the ongoing uncertainty around the peace talks have created an environment of panic and distress among the Afghan people, particularly Afghan women.

Hillary Clinton Warns of “Huge Consequences” on Biden’s Decision to Withdraw from Afghanistan

In an interview with CNN on Sunday, Secretary Hillary Clinton appeared critical of President Biden’s decision to withdraw from Afghanistan and stated that the U.S. “has to focus on two huge consequences” for Afghanistan. “This is what we call a wicked problem. “There are consequences both foreseen and unintended of staying and of leaving,” she told CNN.

The “potential collapse of the Afghan government and a takeover of Afghanistan by the Taliban” as well as “a resumption of activities by global terrorists, most particularly by Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State” are two of the major consequences she warned. Similarly, she warned of a “civil war” in some parts of the country and “a government largely run by the Taliban in the not too distant future.” Clinton also warned of a “huge refugee outflow”

On April 13th, President Biden announced his decision to withdraw all U.S. troops from Afghanistan by 9/11/2021, on the 20th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. The decision to withdraw troops from Afghanistan amidst the ongoing peace talks as well as without any conditions publicly placed on the Taliban has garnered criticism from experts, suggesting that the U.S. gave away one of the main levers in the ongoing peace talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban. Since the announcement of the decision by Biden, the Taliban leaders in Doha have not participated in negotiations with the Afghan government.

Clinton asked, “How do we help and protect the many thousands of Afghans,” those who worked and spoke up for women’s rights and human rights, and those who worked with the U.S. and NATO? In reference to the Special Immigrant Visa, she said she hopes “the Administration in concert with the Congress will set up a very large visa program.” The Special Immigrant Visa helps only those who worked with U.S. and NATO and does not include families or siblings above 18. Many hope that the Administration will expand and expedite the program to cover families as well.

Biden’s decision to withdraw troops from Afghanistan is part of the U.S.-Taliban deal signed by the Trump Administration in February 2020. The agreement required the U.S. to withdraw by May 1. As part of the deal, the US stopped attacking Taliban hideouts by air or night raids. The Taliban in return, did not attack U.S. and allies forces and interests in Afghanistan, and that the group will enter negotiation with the Afghan government, and will reduce violence. While the Taliban did not attack U.S. and allies interests, the group increased its attacks against the Afghan forces and engaged in a large campaign of assassinating those who spoke up against the group. In a recent wave of violence, just this week, in a bomb attack in Logar province near Kabul, 30 people were killed and as many as 100 were injured. Many of the killed and wounded were students.

Afghans and their allies hoped that the Biden Administration would put pressure on the Taliban and would not leave at a time when the security situation in the country has deteriorated because of the increased attacks. The decision came as a shock and many Afghan feel abandoned by their allies once again, fearing a repeat of the history of the 1990s.

BBC 5/1/2021, CNN 5/3/2021

Senators on Both Sides of the Aisle Express Concern About Women’s Rights Post- US Withdrawal from Afghanistan

In a Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearing this week, senators from across the political spectrum expressed concerns about the security situation in Afghanistan post- U.S. and NATO withdrawal this year. Members also appeared tense in their questioning of the U.S. government’s special envoy for peace in Afghanistan, Zalmay Khalilzad. Committee members repeatedly expressed their concerns on U.S. counter-terrorism operations as well the future of human rights and women’s rights in Afghanistan. Some senators in the committee expressed their support for President Biden’s decision to withdraw from Afghanistan on the 20th anniversary of the U.S. intervention in the country.

In her statement, Senator Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) tried to put faces to some of the names of the women who have been assassinated by the Taliban just in the past year since the signing of the agreement between the U.S. and the Taliban. Shaheen brought a board with photos of the seven women, all ranging in careers and ages, including a journalist, physician, human rights activist, and civil servants of the Afghan government. In her testimony, she said, “these seven women didn’t deserve to die. We owe it to them and the generations that will come after them to do everything we can to prevent any more Afghan women [suffering] from the same fate.”

As the only woman sitting on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Senator Shaheen has been a champion for defending and speaking for Afghan women’s human rights. She stated, “This is not a women’s issue; it is a human rights issue, and it is the security issue for the future of Afghanistan.”

In a rather frustrated voice, she said that she has been “disappointed” with the lack of consideration for women’s rights from the previous administration and stated that the current administration hasn’t “sufficiently” answered her concerns either. Referring to what the Taliban’s values are, the current level of violence, and what the future holds for Afghan women, Shaheen repeatedly said, “I want to put a face to all that.” Pointing to the photos of the seven women, “they were murdered for choosing to live their lives outside the narrow confinements of what the Taliban and other extremist groups deem acceptable for women.”

Shaheen did not ask questions and used her time to address the issue of human rights and women’s rights. She said, “These are the Taliban who we are being asked to join at the negotiating table to support. I will not support any efforts that will allow them to continue to commit these horrific acts without any accountability for their behavior.”

As part of the U.S.-Taliban agreement, the U.S. and NATO forces will withdraw starting May 1st. Many Afghans and allies were hoping that the deteriorating security situation since the signing of the agreement and the violations of human rights by extremists would compel the U.S. and NATO to stay in the country to help with some stability. President Biden’s announcement came as a shock that the U.S. will withdraw all U.S. forces by September 11, 2021, the 20th anniversary of the horrific 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City.

Senator Shaheen warned that, “What we do over the next four months will impact the lives of women for generations to come. We cannot let those two decades of work be ignored in peace talks.”

In a more tense exchange between Khalilzad and Senator Bob Menendez (D-NJ), Chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, on the provision of NDAA (National Defense Authorization Act) to report to the Committee, he said, “if I don’t get the report, there will be no authorization coming from this committee.” The Senator referred to a requirement from the State Department to report on the Taliban’s compliance with the February 29/2020 agreement, signed between the U.S. and the Taliban under the Trump Administration.

Senator Menendez criticized the Biden Administration for a “limited” messaging on the withdrawal and what the future holds and urged the development of a “contingency plan” should the situation go out of control.

“I have deep concerns for the administration’s rush for the exit from Afghanistan,” said Senator James Risch (R-ID), ranking member of the Committee. The Senator agrees to withdraw from Afghanistan but that it “should only occur that safeguards U.S. national security, preserves the hard-fought gains, and protects the homeland.” All along, this is what the Afghan people have demanded as well. The Afghan people do not want the U.S. and NATO to stay in Afghanistan indefinitely but that allies should leave when the time is right.

While Khalilzad remained positive in his statement and spoke of “change” in the Taliban behavior and that the group does not intend to “return to the pariah status,” members appeared to be skeptical of his optimism. In response to much of the optimism shared by Khalilzad, Senator Menendez said, “I hope that your optimism is rewarded,” Menendez said. But “I fear that at some point in the future, we may be having a hearing that that isn’t the ultimate reality.” Khalilzad did not share the concerns of a collapse of the state of the Afghan government and mildly agreed to the high level of violence.

Afghan Women Negotiators Warn of “State Collapse” Should the US Leave Too Soon

In a hearing held by the Women, Peace, and Security Caucus, Afghan women negotiators emphasized that the United States’ support is critical to the peace process and democracy and that the U.S. “leaving should not result in state collapse and collapse of institutions.” The Afghan women negotiators cautioned that the Afghan peace process requires patience, that democracy, human rights and women’s rights, and a constitutional order must be protected. The four women are the only women negotiators representing the Afghan state in negotiating peace with the Taliban.

The Afghan women have high hopes that their international allies, those in the U.S. and especially in the U.S. Congress who stood with them for nearly two decades will support the Afghan people for obtaining a sustainable peace. The Afghan women were clear in their message to Congress: that the Afghan people need the U.S. support, that they value this partnership, and share the same values of equal rights for all and a democracy in which all Afghans thrive and have equal opportunities.

Fawzia Kofi, one of the negotiators and a former Member of the Afghan Parliament warned that the United States “should not simply hand over power to a few to make it easier to leave. If the U.S. leaves now, it will not result in peace and the U.S. might have to come back to fix the crisis.” In a clear reference on the possible repercussion of leaving too soon, she told the members that the U.S. decision will not only harm Afghans, but that “without proper patience and considerations, it will damage us all and that it will lead to a proxy war.”

The four negotiators were clear on the need for continuing the negotiations. “We are serious about peace. We want peace, but what kind of peace?” asked Fatima Gaillani, who also served as President of the Afghan Red Crescent Society for 13 years. “We have to achieve the peace that the people of Afghanistan want and deserve.”

In her opening statement, Gaillani reminded the Members of Congress of the youth of Afghanistan, stating that 70% of the Afghan population is under the age of 35 and that they support the gains and the values of the past 20 years. “The aspirations and the desires of the young people in Afghanistan are not any different than the young people in your country,” she told the U.S. Members of Congress.

Gaillani continued that, “in order to achieve the peace that young Afghans want and deserve, we have to be extremely careful. I would like you to know that the withdrawal of U.S. troops has to be extremely careful. It should not end up in chaos. It should not end up in the collapse of the state and the institutions.”

Habiba Sarabi, another negotiator and former governor of Bamiyan province, warned of the hasty withdrawal of the U.S. troops too and reminded the audience of the United States’ end of support to the Afghan people after the Soviet withdrawal in the early 1990s. “We do not want another civil war and millions of Afghans leaving the country again,” she told the members.

The four negotiators also delivered strong messages on the importance of the U.S.-Afghanistan long-term strategic partnership and demanded “clarity” and “assurances” on any possible deal with the Taliban. “We have been in this for 20 years. It is a strategic partnership that we value and we would like to continue,” Said Kofi. Gaillani added, “The Afghan people want to be included in every step forward. Clarity about peace, about the peace process, assurance about the future, and an Afghanistan that countries like yours will be happy to help and partner.”

While being optimistic about the need to continue the negotiations with the Taliban, the four Afghan women demanded “assurances” on the Taliban claims about changes in their views on women’s rights. Sharifa Zurmati, another negotiator and a former Member of the Afghan Parliament stated that women’s rights cannot be “ignored.” She told the Members that the Taliban’s claim that they will allow women to study is not enough, “access to education is not the only right Afghan women should have. It does not encompass all rights. We need international support in getting assurances from the Taliban on women’s equal rights.”

She added that “Afghan women are worried if the international community will stand with them at this time of peace process and if international allies will fulfill their responsibilities when our rights are up for negotiations.” Zurmati continued that, “Afghan women are worried that will they be able to work in all areas as they have for the past 20 years? She told the Members that women’s equal rights and access to equal opportunities is not only critical for human rights but that it is needed for the country to progress in the right direction. Zurmati said, “Women are more than 50% of the country. How can they be ignored?”

The four negotiators asked for a prominent role for women in any future political settlement and reiterated that without guaranteed positions and quotas for women in any agreement, women’s rights and status cannot be preserved. Habiba Sarabi referred to the latest peace proposal to Afghanistan from the Biden Administration and shared her concerns on the creation of the High Council for Islamic Jurisprudence in the judiciary system as proposed by the U.S. State Department. “We know from experience that men will fill these positions. We know they are getting ready for these positions now. If there is no quota allocated for Afghan women, they will be prevented from joining any of these institutions,” Sarabi said.

Since the intra-Afghan talks began in September of 2020 in Doha, violence has been increasing inside Afghanistan. Fatima Gaillani expressed her concerns on the ongoing violence in the country and stated, “While we negotiate for peace in Doha, every day, everyday men, women, and children are killed in my country. Some are even chased to their homes to be killed.” She asked, “this has to stop.”

Under the U.S.-Taliban deal, signed by the Trump administration and the Taliban, the Taliban stopped attacking American and NATO forces. In contrast, the group intensified their attacks on the Afghan forces and the Afghan people. As a result, the assassination of the young and educated Afghans as well as those who speak up have been at its peak.

Both Democrats and Republicans who participated in the hearing expressed their support for human rights, women’s rights, and democracy in Afghanistan and shared their concerns on losing the gains of the past two decades. Congressman Michael Waltz (R) of Florida who co-chairs the WPS Caucus shared his dismay at the latest peace proposal from the State Department that dismantling an elected government in Afghanistan is not the right thing to do. “I have serious concerns about the power sharing agreement that our State department is propagating in the peace negotiations,” he told the audience.

Congresswoman Lois Frankel (D-FL) who co-chairs the WPS Caucus stated that, “Women are important players in security, prosperity of their communities, and in their countries, as mothers, as sisters, as wives, at home, at work, in the battlefield, and negotiations at the table.” While recognizing the courage and bravery of Afghan women in fighting for their equal rights, she assured them that, “We do not want to go backwards. There are many of us in the U.S. Congress who share your concerns. We will make sure that the progress made in human rights, especially women’s rights continue in Afghanistan.”

Afghan Women Reject US Peace Proposal: “Is This What American Democracy Looks Like?”

In response to the new US-proposed agreement for peace in Afghanistan, Afghan women’s groups and their leaders shared their dismay and stated that the agreement is proposed “without consulting Afghans and particularly Afghan women, who have made the greatest sacrifices over these four decades of war.” Their statement comes days after mounting frustrations among the Afghan people on the letter sent to their president by the U.S. Secretary of State, Antony Blinken. Soon after the letter to President Ghani was leaked, a proposed agreement was also made public outlining a proposal for a “political settlement” among Afghan leaders. 

The new US proposal calls for Afghanistan’s currently elected and legitimate government to be replaced with temporary leaders for a transitional period. Moreover, the proposal suggests that the Afghan Constitution be rewritten and that upon signing the agreement, a ceasefire will be brokered.

The coalition of the Afghan women’s groups wrote that the new proposal would “only dismantle our existing constitutional order, which so many Afghans and Americans fought and died to create, in favor of an unelected interim government that hands positions of power to the Taliban at the national and sub-national levels without forcing them to face their own people at the polls.” The Afghan women ask: “Is this what American democracy looks like?”

The statement emphasizes that since the beginning of the peace process that resulted in the February 29, 2020 US-Taliban agreement, the views of the Afghan people in general and women more specifically have been left out. The Afghan government was excluded from the agreement and in the process of negotiations and only a select number of “Afghan politicians outside of the government were engaged on a limited basis.”

In the statement, Afghan women demand “a more inclusive peace process, as aligned with international obligations under UNSCR 1325 and U.S. obligations under the Women, Peace, and Security Act of 2017.”

Afghan politicians and the Afghan people were aware of President Biden’s previous “forever wars” statements on Afghanistan, however, since the Trump administration was perceived more favorable to the Taliban, Afghans had high hopes that the new administration will bring more accountability to their peace process. Afghan women in particular had high hopes for the Biden administration that the United States would choose a path forward that would be in consultation with the Afghan people, would stand for the human rights of Afghan women and would support the republic, and a system that the United States once established and supported.

In contrast to Afghans’ hopes, the latest shift shared through Sec. Blinken’s letter and his proposed agreement has created an overwhelming level of frustration, disappointment, and fear of a rushed process that will lack long-term outcomes. The women’s groups share their fears of a Taliban comeback that could roll back much of the progress made over the last two decades.

Soon after the Biden administration announced that it will review the US-Taliban deal, negotiated by the Trump administration, and will do a “thorough assessment” of the past year, the Taliban negotiators, in protest, traveled to Pakistan, Iran, Moscow, and Turkey courting support and legitimacy.

Although the review is still believed to be ongoing, the latest development has been perceived as a sign of growing impatience and expediting the so-called peace process. Despite expert warnings on rushing the peace process as well as removing US and NATO troops from Afghanistan by May 1, Blinken’s letter states that “all options” are on table, including the withdrawal of US troops.

The US, under the Trump leadership, signed a deal with the Taliban in February 2020. As part of that agreement, the Taliban promised to engage in negotiations with the Afghan government and that the group will reduce violence. Despite these commitments, the violence and targeted killings have been at their peak for the past year, since the signing of the US-Taliban deal, and their leaders have remained disengaged from the peace process.

The intra-Afghan peace talks started with high hopes that at last peace might be within reach. However, the process proved to be slow, the Taliban remained disengaged, demanding more concession, leading to many doubts on the success of the peace process. The Taliban also continues to use violence as their main leverage at the negotiation table. The first round of talks ended in early December of last year and were scheduled to restart in January. However, the talks have been on hold.

Washington Post, March 2021, Tolonews March 2021, Afghan Women’s Groups statement, March 15, 2021

Afghanistan: Afghan Women Journalists Facing Rising Violence

A new report by the Afghan Journalists Safety Committee reveals that in the past 6 months, there has been an 18% reduction in the number of women working for the media in Afghanistan. This decline comes amidst the ongoing violence and increased level of threats targeted at journalists and those working with the media. Women receive the highest level of threats and have been the biggest victims in losing their careers and safety. The report’s finding suggests that in the past few months, over 300 women journalists and media workers left their jobs because of safety and security concerns. Prior to the decline, there were 1,678 women who worked as journalists and media workers in Afghanistan. The number now stands at 1,377. 

In the past six months, 12 journalists have been killed in Afghanistan. Many more have been threatened, leading to an exodus of journalists from their jobs, and even from their country, for their own safety. This month alone, three young women who worked for a local TV and radio network in the east of the country, Jalalabad city, were shot dead on their way home from work. A fourth colleague of theirs was injured. A well-known presenter of the same network, Malalai Maiwand, also a woman, was gunned down in December 2020 on her way to work. 

On January 1st this year, Bismillah Adel, a well-known journalist and human rights advocate in the west of the country, Badghis, was killed shortly after he arrived in town to visit his family. He had moved to Kabul to a safe house for journalists after receiving threats. Two months after his death, unknown gunmen stormed his family house, killed three members of the family, kidnapped three and injured four. In addition to journalists and media workers being targeted directly, the tragedy of families becoming collateral in this war in Afghanistan is not new. 

For the past two decades, the media and a free press have been one of the major achievements of the international community’s engagement in Afghanistan. Afghan journalists took risks in creating a thriving media scene, one that up until recently, was unprecedented in Afghanistan and in the surrounding region. It grew from just one Taliban propaganda radio station to hundreds of radio and TV stations, newspapers, magazines, and journals. 

Free press is a key pillar of strengthening and promoting a democracy, a vision strongly shared by the Afghan journalists. Despite the many challenges, they remain committed to their duty to deliver information, to strengthen and promote their nascent democracy. 

Tolonews 3/8/2021, Pajhwok 3/8/2021, Atlantic Council 3/8/2021, BBC 3/3/2021, CNN 12/10/2020

Women Targeted in the Escalating Violence in Afghanistan

In a wave of assassinations in Afghanistan, this week four women media professionals and a gynecologist alongside her daughter were attacked in Jalalabad, an eastern city in Afghanistan. Mursal Wahidi, 25, Sadia Sadat, 20, and Shahnaz Raofi, 20, were shot dead on their way home from work. Their fourth colleague, also a woman, was wounded. The four women worked for a local radio and TV network. In December 2020, a well-known journalist and presenter, Malalai Maiwand, 26, who worked for the same radio and TV network was gunned down on her way to work. These are only a few of the Afghan women gone too soon. 

Since the signing of the peace deal between the U.S. and the Taliban in February of 2020, a new chapter of violence has opened in Afghanistan. The nature of violence has changed from mass suicide attacks to unprecedented levels of targeted killings of media professionals, journalists, civil servants, members of civil society, NGO workers, health workers and advocates of human rights. Many of these attacks are unclaimed and the Afghan government has been unable to stop the assassinations and to bring those to justice who commit such crimes. 

Major suicide attacks and bomb explosions continue to terrorize Afghans but to a lesser extent. The Afghan people could often avoid places assumed to be the targets for suicide attacks but with the new tactic in place by the terrorist groups, Afghans cannot predict who would be next, leading to much fear and uncertainty among Afghans. 

In response to the latest attacks on women and human rights defenders, Eleanor Smeal, President of the Feminist Majority Foundation stated that, “The high level of violence is not only against the spirit of peace talks, but is obviosly being used as leveage at the bargaining table by the Taliban. For peace to be achieved, the violence must stop.”

Although the government does not provide an exact list of the assassinations, according to the New York Times tally, more than 136 civilians and 168 Afghan security forces have been murdered in such killings over the past year. The 168 Afghan security forces were either targeted off duty or on their way to work. 

Based on a recent UNAMA report that records civilian casualties, the level of violence increased when the intra-Afghan peace talks began in September of last year. The report indicated that the overall level of violence in 2020 was down compared to 2019, but the level of violence was the highest between the months of September and December than it has ever been. 

With the start of the Afghan peace process, Afghans were hopeful that, at last, peace will prevail and that Afghan leaders will come to a compromise that will best serve their country and the nation. However, the high level of violence for the past year has resulted in a lack of trust in the peace process and a deteriorating hope for a lasting peace in the country. 

The U.S. signed a peace deal with the Taliban in February 2020 under the Trump leadership, in which the Taliban committed to not attack Americans or their interests in Afghanistan. The agreement did not include the same protections for the Afghan people. The US-Taliban deal has been viewed significantly flawed by many and is currently under review by the Biden administration. While all await the result of the review, the Afghan people hope that the Biden administration will do right by them, that it will use its leverage in the ongoing talks for a just, practical, inclusive and real peace in Afghanistan. 

More Afghans Killed During Peace Talks

A new report released by the United Nations Assistance Mission to Afghanistan (UNAMA) reveals that the Taliban attacks increased when the intra-Afghan peace talks began in September of 2020. The report also indicates that the overall number of Afghans being killed in 2020 had decreased by 15% compared to 2019. In contrast to the past 12 years since UNAMA began recording the death toll in the country, the attacks intensified this past winter with the formal opening of the Afghan peace talks.

UNAMA has recorded a total of 8,820 civilian deaths and injuries, 1,146 of which are women and 2,619 are children in 2020. Based on the report, the Taliban and Islamic State, known as ISKP in Afghanistan, are responsible for 62% of the casualties. The remaining 25% are caused by the Afghan government, United States and NATO forces as well as other armed groups supporting the Afghan government. According to UNAMA’s 12 years of records, the total number of civilians killed and injured since 2009 now stands at 110,893, of which 35,559 were killed. This report does not include the military’s casualties resulting from insurgent attacks.

Although there is a 15% decrease in the overall killings of Afghans in 2020, there was a sharp increase in the targeted assassinations of civilians, including public servants, lawyers and judges, health workers, professors, leaders and members of civil society, journalists, NGO workers, human rights defenders, and anyone who spoke against violence and terror in the country. Civilian family members of the police and army were disproportionately targeted as well. Attackers used explosive devices, magnetic bombs attached to vehicles, and targeted killings. The report shows that there was a 69% increase in casualties resulting from explosive devices and a 62% increase in targeted killings compared to the same period in 2019. October and November were the deadliest months since UNAMA began recording in 2009.

The Taliban and other groups did not take responsibility for much of the attacks, but the UNAMA report suggests that the Taliban was responsible for two-thirds of the targeted attacks. The targeted attacks and the resulting casualties, while it might be perceived as small in number compared to 2019, the impact of these attacks were significant and created an “environment of fear and paralyzed many parts of society.”

The signing of the agreement between Afghanistan and the United States under President Trump’s leadership and the Taliban had given hopes to the Afghan people that it would lead to a quiet period and peace in the country. However, the agreement, as it was later revealed, only prevented the killing of Americans by the Taliban and vice versa. In the agreement, the Taliban side was not obligated to refrain from attacking the Afghan people and the Afghan forces, giving them the opportunity to use violence as the major leverage at hand during the intra-Afghan peace talks.

According to several reports, the Afghan people believe that negotiations with the Taliban are the only way to end the conflict in Afghanistan. However, they warn that the Taliban must know that they cannot return to power like they did prior to 2001. Afghans want to live under a republic in which they have equal rights, have the right to express themselves and hold authorities accountable – none of which the Taliban has shown to believe in these basic democratic values.

Source: UNAMA Feb. 2021

Afghanistan Study Group Warns Against U.S. Troop Withdrawal

A new report released by the Afghanistan Study Group has concluded that removing U.S. troops will lead to a civil war in Afghanistan. The group suggests changing the date, currently set for May 1 this year.  “A precipitous U.S. withdrawal is likely to exacerbate the conflict, provoking a wider civil war,” the report reads. It also warns that “A withdrawal would not only leave America more vulnerable to terrorist threats; it would also have catastrophic effects in Afghanistan and the region that would not be in the interest of any of the key actors, including the Taliban.”

The Afghanistan Study Group is mandated by the U.S. Congress and led by former Senator Kelly Ayote and General Joseph Dunford. The group of experts and former U.S. leaders were charged with the examination the Doha Agreement, signed by the U.S. and Taliban leadership in Doha in February of 2020. Over a period of ten months, the group examined the situation in Afghanistan and concluded that the “possibility of civil war is high in the wake of a precipitous troop withdrawal.” 

At the launch of the report, co-chair of the group, General Joseph Dunford said, “We believe that the U.S. withdrawal will provide an opportunity to the terrorists to reconstitute and in our judgement that reconstitution will take about 18-36 months.” The group suggests that the withdrawal be linked to Taliban adherence to the agreements and a reduction in violence, not a deadline set in the Doha Agreement. 

General Dunford stated that, “We don’t believe that the Taliban are meeting the conditionality of the Feb. 2020 agreement.” He said that the group examined the conditionality in three areas, “One, the progress towards a peace agreement; secondly, a genuine broad reduction in violence; third, to demonstrate the will and capacity to prevent Al-Qaeda and ISIS from using Afghanistan as a platform for terrorism.” 

The third point has been supported by reports from the UN and a recent US Treasury report that highlighted the continued relationship between the Taliban and Al-Qaeda and the benefits that the Taliban derives from that relationship. The Treasury Department wrote in their report that “Al-Qaeda is gaining strength in Afghanistan while continuing to operate with the Taliban under the Taliban protection.” 

The Study Group advocated strongly for a renewed diplomatic engagement in Afghanistan, highlighting regional roles, and saying that “a responsible withdrawal of U.S. troops will demonstrate America’s fidelity to its foreign policy objectives and the benefits of diplomatic engagement.” 

While the intra-Afghan peace talks have been on hold for the past month, on several occasions the Taliban has warned that if U.S. troops are not withdrawn by May 1, they will further increase the violence inside the country and renew attacks on the U.S. and NATO troops as well. Based on the agreement between the US and the Taliban, the Taliban avoided targeting international troops but has increased its attacks on the Afghan security forces as well as the Afghan people. 

In speaking with members of civil society and the media, the Afghan government and its delegation in Doha criticized the Taliban for not attending the peace talks. Since news of the review of the agreement was announced by the Biden administration, Taliban leaders have traveled to Russia, Iran, and Pakistan and have been meeting with the leadership of these countries. The Afghan government’s delegation says they have been waiting for the Taliban negotiators to return to Doha to resume the process. 

In January, National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan and Secretary of State Antony Blinken announced that the Biden administration will review and assess the agreement between the U.S. and the Taliban. While the review is underway, intra-Afghan peace talks are on hold in Doha. Many Afghans and allies await a renewed direction in the Afghan peace talks. 


Biden Administration to Review US-Taliban Agreement

In a conversation with Afghan National Security advisor Hamdullah Mohib, President Biden’s National Security advisor Jake Sullivan once again relayed that the Biden administration will review and assess the Doha Agreement, signed by the Trump administration and the Taliban. Sullivan also ensured US support “for protecting the extraordinary gains made by Afghan women, girls, and minority groups.” 

A White House statement about Sullivan’s call with Hamdullah Mohib says that Sullivan “made clear the United States’ intention to review the February 2020 US-Taliban agreement, including to assess whether the Taliban was living up to its commitments to cut ties with terrorist groups, to reduce violence in Afghanistan, and to engage in meaningful negotiations with the Afghan government and other stakeholders.”

The review of the agreement and the Biden’s administration’s intention of “consulting closely” with the government of Afghanistan, NATO allies, and regional partners has been welcomed by Afghan women’s human rights groups, Afghan politicians, and the media at large.

In a cabinet meeting, the Afghan president, Ashraf Ghani, welcomed the Biden administration’s review and called it “a new chapter”  in the US and the Afghan government’s relationship. President Ghani and his government were sidelined under the Trump administration and were not part of the negotiations between the US and the Taliban. While welcoming the news, Ghani said, “Our relations will be at the level of government-to-government.”

During his confirmation hearing last Tuesday, Antony Blinken told the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that he will review the Doha Agreement between the US and the Taliban and emphasized protecting and supporting the hard-won gains of Afghan women.

The Doha Agreement was signed by Taliban leadership and Zalmay Khalilzad, the US Special Representative for Afghanistan Reconciliation in February of 2020. The agreement was followed by negotiations between the Afghan government and the Taliban, as part of the deal between the US and the Taliban. 

The Intra-Afghan talks began September 12th of 2020 and lasted for 84 days. During that period, the two sides only agreed on procedural matters. The Afghan government’s negotiators as well as the Taliban are back in Doha since January 7th to resume the second round of talks. However, the teams have not met over the last two weeks.



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