Health Minister Ismail Awadallah Salaam announced on July 11, 1997 that the Egyptian health authorities will continue to enforce a ban on female genital mutilation despite a June 24 court ruling against the ban. Salaam’s ministry has filed an appeal with Egypt’s Supreme Administrative Court challenging the mid-level administrative court’s decision. Islamic fundamentalists oppose Salaam, arguing that genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision, the full or partial removal of the clitoris of pre-pubescent girls, protects women from the results of excessive desire. The practice, however, has can lead to death and has been linked to sexual dysfunction and emotional and physical trauma. Salaam defended his decision, saying, “The decision to ban female circumcision was a sound decision, in line with the proper concept of religionLinking female circumcision with Islam is an insult to the religion.” Procedurally, it is unclear whether or not Salamm has the power to ignore the lower courts ruling and enforce the ban.