An American Management Association survey of over 4,500 managers and executives in mid-sized and large organizations found that mobility and being male were two key factors in determining rates of job advancement.
The study, “Career Advancement in the 1990’s,” researched the characteristics of managers between 1990 and 1997. It found that half the managers worked for two or more organizations, and nearly three-fourths held two or more positions. Almost one in three relocated their place of residence for their jobs.
Three in four managers surveyed were male, two-thirds of which identified themselves as European (as compared to about half of the female managers).
According to the AMA survey, managers increased their salaries an average of 48 percent between 1990 and 1997, plus they earned additional compensation such as stock options, bonuses, etc. Female managers, however, continued to earn only 63% of their male counterparts’ salaries. Even female CEOs earned only 64% of men’s salaries. According to the study, the reason for this phenomenon is in part because “women are more likely to hold senior posts in smaller companies, where salaries tend to be lower than mega-firms.”