In three of Brazil’s state capitals women are running against women for the seat of mayor, a refreshing indicator that women’s participation in local politics is flourishing. Researchers point to a glass ceiling in politics, in which women’s leadership is only accepted at the local level. Women’s participation in local politics soar in regions where they are closely associated with community issues and where “family networks” are prevalent. However, at the municipal and federal levels, power is reserved for male clan members. The number of female lawmakers in Brazil’s national Congress has dropped from 34 in the 1994 elections to 28 in 1998. The number of female city councillors rose by 111 percent when a quota system that reserved 20 percent of candidacies for women was established in 1996. Women’s rights advocates in Brazil are urging reform of quota laws on a national level.